Ancestral homes

Environmental settlements of Ukraine: ancestral homes, eco-village
Accommodation consists of areas that will be converted to ancestral homes of families living and their descendants in close harmony with nature, ecological farming and low-cost stand-alone environmental buildings (see the concept of eco). About 50% of the plots planted forest and fruit trees, including the obligatory presence of the Siberian stone pine (Pinus Sibirica). Improved fertile layer (currently number 2 in the field of soil lost its structure and humus, compared to natural conditions, decreased to 1,5 ... 2 times).

Basic requirements for family estate:
• Land in the estate should always be fertile (to regenerate itself).
• The diversity of growing crops must meet the needs of the family in food, and if necessary, and treatment.
• growing in the area should generate income families.
• Design of all estates should be beautiful, comfortable and functional.
• The house must be energy efficient, environmentally friendly, autonomous from the total water supply, sewerage and electricity is desirable.
• floor plan must conform to professional and creative inclinations particular family.

1. Plot size.
To create a natural system capable of self-regulation required land area not less than 1 hectare. The maximum size is limited to the purposes and possibilities of a particular person or group of people. In this case, is considered a plot size of 1 ha.

2. Hedge.
On the perimeter of the area planted hedge, which protects the area from the toxic emissions from motor vehicles and industrial, noise, water and wind erosion, creating a favorable microclimate for the entire site. The root system of the hedge is gidrobotanicheskim filter groundwater and wastewater. To hedge a habitat for insects, animals and birds, it should be a three-tier (trees, bushes, shrubs and grasses). Also, it must create an impenetrable barrier to humans and large animals (a fence). For effective protection against wind erosion hedgerow created at least one row of shrubs and unsolid two rows of trees. Thus we get the 3.4 series of plantations with total area of 15-30 hectare. Fence not only protects the estate, but should be beautiful and functional, include plants, honey plants, berries, flowering, Phytoncidic. Results need to plant about 1000 plants in the first 2-3 years.

3. Forest plot.
To build sustainable and productive agrobiocenosis located in the ecological balance necessary to create biological diversity around 300 perennials and more than 100 species of annual plants, most of which represented a local wild species of flora. The structure of this agrobiocenosis are fruiting, medical, technical and ornamental plants. Perhaps the creation of the grove of exotic plants for the area, on the condition that they may not be the disseminators of new diseases and pests. Natural mutual plants, insects, birds and animals will not only enjoy the visual and listening to the birds singing, but also improve the plant, making them stronger. This would dispense with protection chemicals and mineral fertilizers. Natural enemies will not allow excessively procreate "pests". This diversity of plant species created for 3-10 years. Forest area (groves) takes at least 10-30 hectare territory of the estate or 100-300 of woody plants.

4. Sad.
An important element agrobiocenosis a garden with fruit plantations. It not only provides benefits for humans and birds, but also saturates the air in the spring and summer, wonderful smell of flowers and fruits, gives the plot an aesthetic appeal. To the plants had more forces, but the fruit is more useful, the majority of trees and shrubs are grown in a natural way, ie from seeds, and planted with love. Very tough and often the most delicious is Michurin varieties. Since Michurin sort or other, not grafted seedlings of fruit trees are hard to find, as well as for plants, most suited for a particular piece of land, a large number of fruit trees to grow in our own nursery from seed. Most of the trees bear fruit in better cross-pollination, and some plants dioecious (male and female). So must be at least two copies of the selected plants. There are different types and varieties: early, middle and late. Thus, should be at least 3 varieties of apples, and at least 3 varieties of pears, for 2 - cherry and plum. Given other fruit crops get less than 25 fruit trees and more shrubs. Total garden will zanimat10-20 ares.

5. Garden.
Optimum size of the garden, which will be cultivated annual and perennial crops in the mixed crops (including with useful wild), is a 10-20 hectare. That is quite enough, that feed a family of 4 persons and to eliminate the depletion of topsoil. In addition, here is a pilot site for the cultivation of nontraditional crops or using new methods. Garden can be in one place or at several sites. It should be noted that the clearing will grow edible herbs (such as nettles and weeds), which many today have forgotten.

6. Beekeeping.
Where there are bees and bumblebees, increases the yield of flowering plants in 1,5-5 times. To better accommodate the bees are not modern beehives, and a deck or board. Under natural conditions, bees prefer to settle in the hollows of living trees in their upper 1 / 3 part, because there are air land and wintering better. If you put the bees in a board or deck - this will free people from many troubles for the care of beehives, the bees will be less sick, and honey will be tastier.

7. Pond.
On the plot of 1 hectare, to create a favorable microclimate for most plants, dug a lake with a water mirror 1,5-3 hundred square meters and a depth of 1,5-3. When the data size can form a stable aquatic ecosystem of plants, fish and birds, virtually maintenance free. Pond increases humidity, which contributes to better plant growth and prevents burnout in a drought, and when spring frosts greatly reduces shedding of flowers, attracts birds and animals. It improves the aesthetic appearance of the site and is also used for bathing the family, irrigation of crops, breeding of fish. The more the reservoir, the more trouble to build, but less support - increases the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. For the reservoir is selected the most humid area of land where spring moisture dries up in the last turn and ground water near the surface. The total area of the reservoir and adjacent territory will be 4.6 hectare.

8. Treatment of land and control of "pests".
Methods environmental bespahatnogo agriculture can significantly reduce the cost of manual labor as the garden, and on all the plot. This person directs and regulates the natural processes, instead of rigidly intrude in a friendly community of soil, plants and animals with chemicals and deep plowing. For example, when using Fokin medium complexion man can for one day to prepare for sowing or weed 0.5 ha.
To combat the "wreckers" uses natural possibilities biosystems - birds, animals and insects that populate the forest park parts of the estate, as well as "plant-friends". Moreover, the greater the species composition of flora and fauna, the more stable the ecosystem, less problems with diseases and pests. (See "Concept of farming")

9. Natural recovery of soil.
Because agrochemical direction of world agriculture in the past 50 years, the composition of the soil microflora was significantly depleted. To speed up the process of rehabilitation of degraded soils is recommended to use:
• Vermicompost from worms local origin. This will stimulate the process of soil formation and increase the humus content in a natural way to 2-3. It should be noted that it is the soil microorganisms and earthworms convert organic matter into humus and produce assimilable form of nutrients for plants.
• universal microbial fertilizer under the name of EM (effective microorganisms). It increases crop yields, quality and immune properties of plants from the enrichment of microflora (in the EM is about 80 species of microorganisms 10 orders).
• natural composting and mulching the soil, leaving the fallen leaves, tops and dried grass - the best fertilizer.

10. Home.
The house and outbuildings should be a positive environmental resources. Ecohouse should be low energy and water consumption, aesthetic, comfortable, affordable most of the population. It must be provided for the use of ecological systems, energy and water self-sufficiency, biological waste treatment, the use of ecological building materials. Applying ecological materials can save on construction of homes and outbuildings. Log walls, cob, gruntoblochnye, straw. If you use a roofing material for the roof preference straw, wood or tile. The concept of "home" also includes other buildings necessary for the sustenance: the cellar, barn, sauna, workshop. The house must fit into the surrounding landscape the site and be part of the ecosystem, not an end in itself. House construction starts after planting woody plants and determine the place for him, ie, from the 2 nd or 3 rd year after the plot patrimony. Under the house and buildings allocated approximately 3.8 hectare.

11. The generic tree.
The generic tree is a symbol of the genus, it will not be used for technical needs. One of the most beautiful in the area, energy charges the man. Typically, this Siberian cedar or oak.

12. Animals.
Domestic animals and poultry kept for food (eggs, milk), wool, draft power as (horse), or for comfort (cat). They are placed on the plan relevant sites, where they will feed and facilities where they will take shelter from the rain and cold. Slaughtering animals for meat on the estate is not allowed. Perhaps, but the content is not welcome dogs. Dogs, hunting with character, will be barking and attacking wild animals, thus violating unity with nature. Grazing can be allocated 4.8 hectare for a goat or 0,4-0,8 ha for horses.

13. Glade for games.
Serves children and adults for mobile games as well as to communicate with friends, animals and birds in the open air. For the field is allocated a minimum of 1 weaving.

14. Arbor for contemplation.

Arbor or corner with a bench, it is desirable to offer a beautiful view, for contemplation and reflection.

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