Three «geo» on the land: geodesy, geology and hydrogeology

04.07.2011 07:00
Articles about the construction | Three «geo» on the land: geodesy, geology and hydrogeology The new site - it does not trim the lawn, which is perched in a corner of the conclusions of communications, and at the entrance - the power line pole, you can connect to. Entry can not be, and the boundaries are lost somewhere in the thicket of weeds. Where to start? At the initial stage, our attention should be focused on three issues of "geo": geodesy, geology and hydrogeology. Define the boundaries ...
... This is important when buying a plot in the old gardens, and a new cottage. First of all, because in the documents and the life they can not match. If the purchased land was abandoned for years, and neighbors mastered the territory of very hard, it is likely that they could not resist the temptation to put a fence on the meter-deep into another "draw" of the earth. This happens quite often leads to conflict. But to start a quarrel with the country life - not the best option. As a rule, the misunderstanding can easily be eliminated. But where they really are - these boundaries and how to measure? To answer the question enough to invite the surveyors that they put the landmark corresponding to the previously produced cadastral survey. This service - paid, but compared to the possible "lost" weave - a cheap.

If you indicated that the stakes were set already, this should not lead you astray, for them to rearrange after the experts leave the site - a favorite occupation of certain other comrades. Acquisition of land on the basis of the preliminary contract of sale in the cottage at a time when the survey has not yet taken place - a difficult case. The only thing that can be recommended - not to hurry with the development of "hasty" has already broken the blossoming gardens and made the foundation, as it turned out, the neighbors' territories.

Monitor and plan
Thus, the boundaries of your territory known. We turn to the study site and planning for further work. If you intend to create a real work of landscape art, nature will have to consider interests. In the modern landscape design made to domesticate nature gradually, and the "shortcomings" turn into virtues. Too heavy boulder or mound, formed after reclamation, may become part of the landscape compositions and failure swamped with hidden creek channel after clearing the pond will become a flow.

Translated from the benefits of landscape design can be found that the soils are heavy clay and light sand, but often exhausted. The first requires the addition of sand, the latter - clay. At the same time and both are still making huge amounts of organic matter. So, it's not with us, but in Europe. Besides, by the standards of imported guides, eight acres - a large area. North-West Russia has its own peculiarities: in Soviet times, gardeners often suggested not to develop farmland and impassable swamps. But the specifics here that is clear of raspberry bushes and a small piece of land, as he once overgrown with weeds. The most important thing we need to know the stage of initial design - a hydrogeological conditions and groundwater levels.

For example, fruit trees require low levels of groundwater, but if you decide to drastically reduce - may suffer mature trees. If on a large area can be "diluted" and somewhere something spiked, in the case of small will have to decide - what is more important to you: park or orchard.

Place a well, septic and house
The issue of placing a local source of water supply and sanitation also need to decide on the initial design stage, at a time when you determine where you reside your home. First we need to explore the neighboring water sources. If they do well, it is desirable to know what their depth limit (ie water loss), age and whether they had to be cleaned. If you mean well, need to determine its depth, size and quantity of water (as it quickly filled after the pump and does not dry up there in the summer), does the analysis of water and that it showed?

If the round until there are no neighbors, no wells or water wells - a problem complicated. Hydrogeological map of scale 1:50 000 showing the depth of the groundwater have representatives of companies engaged in drilling wells. However, these cartographic materials abound in "white spots", but because they were composed during the Soviet era, and for defense purposes, small wells and wells are not considered by cartographers as possible sources of supply.

Most likely, the "pioneer" will be offered the choice to stop at the well. But dig it blindly - is unwise. Even if the neighbors water zaleysya though, you can "miss" with the water-bearing housing or stumble upon an obstacle. Choose a place to help the well exploration drilling. It will only establish the presence of large stones, quicksand, and most importantly, the depth and width of the aquifer. Visiting geologist you will write a detailed specification for the team, which will indicate the amount and type of rings, and also provides guidance on construction.

A few words about the wells. Residents of some localities Leningrad successfully used deep wells 12-25 m and have no problems with either volume or water quality. Alas, not all are so lucky, although the overall situation in the Leningrad region with groundwater is much better than in other regions. It is important to remember that the depth of the hole is not a guarantee of compliance with health standards. In shallow wells often contain man-made pollution in artesian - excessive mineralization.

Now about the sewer. What if the next lake, river, site neighbors? How not to "poison" the well? The usual two-or three-chamber septic tank with field underground filter requires nearly perfect from the geological point of view of soil: sandy, with good filtering properties and a deep groundwater table. Option, frankly, unusual for our region. In all other cases, the homeowner came to the aid of a compact set of biological treatment plant of manufacture. For the vast majority of commissioned private homes and villas unit of local treatment facilities (VOCs) - almost no alternative solution. In recent years, VOCs have been the evolutionary path of self-made septic tanks and cesspools to the biological treatment facilities that have received numerous patents and certificates.

Prepare the soil
So, our next task - to create a reliable base for the beginning of development of the site. Getting to his "general cleaning." Before you start does not stop to look at your own sketch design to determine the location platform, which will be stored for debris removal (large tree stumps, rocks, trash). It shall be provided convenient access. If the site is separated from the road drainage ditch, the development will have to start with the construction of the crossing and clearing the site in the area directly behind the entrance. Entry is desirable to make broad: not less than four feet (not to unload the building materials from the road). After clearing the entrance on both sides of this two sites: one for the unloading of materials, the other - to prepared for the garbage disposal. Such a beginning will greatly facilitate further work.

The best material in order to eliminate large gaps, funnels, as well as to raise the low parts of the territory - the battle of bricks. It is important to make sure that in the soil was brought by large concrete fragments with protruding rebar. Over the newly created firm foundations form a sandy base, which cover geotextile and a layer of fertile soil.

At this stage the need to start thinking about the reclamation and drainage systems (although the issue of drainage will have to go back all the time - and the construction of the house and laying tracks). If we do not want the site turned into a quagmire, it must be drained. Do not dwell on this method, as the ditch. Almost as an affordable option - unit brick drainage. Through the area in the direction of the drain well dig a trench at an angle which is half filled with broken brick, covered with gravel and turf, and then poured the top layer of soil. In recent years, even in such an old technology widely used geotextile - nonwoven materials varying degrees of permeability, which do not allow different layers of soil mix, but the system itself - silt. Drainage of PVC pipes can be laid at a depth of eight meters, but not directly into the clay, and again, surrounding them with a layer of gravel.

Speaking of the horizontal drainage, we felt it should go to the places where moisture accumulates, the ditches surrounding the site, or to drain the well. If the gutter is always water, please contact the Chairman of CHT or DNP. Let the clean and deepen the ditch around the village, as well as looking for a new point of diversion of the (probably in the vicinity of such exists). In any case, it alone will not solve this problem (and this is another argument in favor of friendly relations with its neighbors).

The most difficult case - a site in the valley and, strictly speaking, this it is better not to buy. But once you got it already, the only available way to make it more or less conditioning - to raise the territory already mentioned, the battle of bricks and debris. Some construction companies, specializing in demolition, give him a gift - will have to pay only the shipping. The most "quality" and the net - one that is formed during the demolition of old brick houses.
For sodding the edges of ditches, roadsides and problematic area of ​​fragments can be used Turf. They are readily available (if you buy them in the autumn, on sale), the more that we do not need to roll them over large areas. 
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