This article about landscape design, we introduce our readers with the rules of landscape design suburban area. After reading the article you'll have a better idea of what landscape works to take when choosing a landscape design project and, perhaps, you do not need the course of landscape design to create its own landscape design! The article also describes the landscape architecture and landscape gardening.
Laws and methods of landscape design
What rules must be observed so that your site is not turned into a chaotic collection of unrelated or poorly interconnected parts of the elements? What are the laws, techniques, and if you want the mystique enjoyed by the landscape designer, in terms of natural materials?
For many centuries, the wizard who created the gardens and parks, adhered to laws and regulations that tell them the nature and common to other arts. The gardens have focused, have merged architecture and painting, poetry and music, but the laws of landscape construction were closest to the laws of building space, ie, the laws of architecture. Therefore, we are talking about the art of organization of the surrounding space by means of the natural landscape as a landscape architecture garden.
Natural landscape forms the five major components that are closely interrelated with each other: earth, water, air masses, flora and fauna. We know that on earth there are very few places where the landscape is preserved in its original form - the majority of landscapes artificially created by man. Modern country estates - is also the landscape created by human hands. Therefore, the cottagers and gardeners, in essence, creating a new image of the suburbs, it is important to use techniques and laws of landscape architecture - it's the laws of harmony and beauty, the laws of nature.
The image of nature on canvas paintings or on a plane wall in the interior - it's an illusion of real space. Come down to us a lot of paintings depicting landscapes or individual once existed gardens and parks. History tells us that there were picture-blende, which were used in ancient gardens to visually expand the space of the garden. Decorators painted walls and fences. These are the wall paintings "of the High Garden" in the Kremlin, painting galleries Gonzaga in the Pavlovsk Park. In contrast, based on scenery, invented by painters, even fantastic, gardens nicks created real landscapes in parks and gardens. This was not limited to the interaction of landscape art with paintings: in both the arts are the laws of perspective and color, the laws of the composition of space - the illusory and real.
Under the composition (from Lat. Compositio-link connection) refers to the location of the various forms in the space of combinations, creating a harmonious unity. In other words, by placing the plants and facilities in the garden, we must make this their relationship, which would be pleasing to the eye, causing the sensation of harmony. The relationship of space, plane and volume is expressed three-dimensional composition and is based on the general rules of constructing landscape small garden.
In solving the composite task is necessary to consider a number of properties that have a spatial form. They are similar to the properties you selected in the architecture, also operates a spatial form. These include: a geometric view of form, its size, weight, texture, position in space, color and light (chiaroscuro).
Correlation of forms on their properties are funds of the composition. The most important are: unity and subordination, the proportions, the laws of linear and aerial perspective. They determine the spatial relationships of forms on the space, size, color, lighting, etc. Also included are techniques such as symmetry, asymmetry, balance, rhythm, contrast, nuance, scale, etc.
All of these properties and their relations are closely interrelated, and to allocate among these major and minor, and the more divided they are almost impossible. They are inextricably linked. The value of these properties and their relations in a composition is determined in each case. However, in order to explore better to consider them separately.
Value forms of geometric structure. Form of natural elements can be generalized to imagine a near-geometric. May be linear, planar and volume forms, depending on the ratio of its dimensions. In a linear one dimension prevails over the other two, is extremely small, in-plane - about equal to two dimensions while submitting to a small value of the third, in bulk form, all the measurements are relatively close in magnitude. Note the characteristic three-dimensional shape of tree crowns of different species. They can be imagined as a body of revolution - balls, cones, paraboloids. Compared with low array of flower beds look like a plane (planar form). Linear form, which is invariably present in many of the elements of the garden, can be considered a track, curbs, fencing, garden.
Value Forms in magnitude. Forming a group of trees and shrubs, we often use a contrast ratio of forms (high - low, high - a small, pyramidal, spherical, etc.). Inevitable in a small garden direct paths connecting various points of the garden along the shortest lines, geometrically regular beds combined with the rounded outlines of flower beds. Desirable (from the conditions of care), planting apple trees on a rectangular grid is balanced by the introduction of the picturesque group of flowering shrubs. Stiffness of the plot gets to the free, soft lines shore of a small pool. Are all examples of the relation of forms to geometric structure and magnitude.
When you make a small garden it is best to stay at any one planar form, as a sense of harmony arises due to the simplicity and repetition of the basic pattern. Variety is achieved by varying the value of the form. For example, a circular area for recreation can be arranged in the center of the same round the lawn, no less interesting may be the composition pads square and rectangular shapes.
However, the geometric shapes fulfill their role only if they are clearly seen - in the paths, hedges, borders, pergola, trellis, the surface of the lawn or pond.
The composition must be a spectacular facility. They can become a tree with curly hair, flowers in pots or vases, sculpture or fountain. Trimmed trees and shrubs are good and the corners of beds, and at the ends of the tracks, where they emphasize the clarity of geometric shapes.
Relations form the texture. Paul understood the nature of the surface texture of objects. In landscape design takes into account the texture of vegetation - trees, shrubs, lawns and flowerbeds of the surface and paving materials, stairs and railings.
If it is a woody plant, the texture is regarded as an integral part of characterizing the structure of the crown (along with the silhouette and structure). At the same time stand out! the following types: coarse (oak), medium (elm, linden), thin (willow, birch).
Correlation of forms in color. Color is an important means of artistic expression of the composition. Should take into account seasonal and age-related changes of color of plants, the overall color gamut of landscapes, the color of flower beds.
In the spring, summer and autumn color trees is composed of the color of leaves, branches, stems, flowers and fruits, and in winter, early spring time pozdneosennee and the hue is determined by the color of the branches and trunks. During the round, a significant place in the coloring of the landscape occupied by evergreen plants: fir, spruce. pine and juniper. In the southern latitudes used a wide range of evergreen and deciduous conifers.
The main background for the trees and flower plants are the lawns that from April to September vary in shades of green: from warm to cold tones.
Relation to forms in space. Here we have in mind the provision of forms in relation to each other and the observer in three dimensions. A variety of forms in space, we place the garden and get with the three types of spatial composition: the frontal, three-dimensional and depth-dimensional.
In the frontal compositions, expanded in width, is generally not expressed in the other two dimensions. This kind of planar decorations. The bulk composition has a shape, pronounced in all three dimensions. In deep-space compositions of natural forms are organized in deep perspective, the perception of which is largely determined by the laws of linear and aerial perspective - composite of inherent landscape architecture, as well as painting.
The prospect of change is called visual objects as they are removed from the observer.
Laws of perspective were discovered by masters of the Renaissance, have developed a mathematically precise system of construction space. Leonardo da Vinci wrote that the theory of linear perspective explains the phenomenon of visible shapes, sizes and colors depending on their position in space.
Distinguish between linear and aerial perspective.
And in nature, and the picture you will notice how converge on the horizon, leaving you to parallel lines. In this case, all vertical lines remain vertical, decreasing in magnitude - the farther they are from the observer, the less. It can be noted and that the low plants in the foreground may appear above the higher further away. This effect is called linear perspective.
Aerial perspective - is changing the brightness and sharpness of objects and their colors as the distance from the observation point.
Spatial variation of color is also called color (colorful) perspective.
Unlike painting with its conditional nature of the image in landscape art, the depth of the space - it is reality, and use the laws of perspective (a decrease in the subjects with their remote, softening the contrast between light and shadow, changing the color saturation and the appearance of blue haze enveloping the background landscape) helps create the necessary illusion of deeper or, conversely, to reduce space.
The prospect includes the viewpoint that the object or objects that are subject to review. and intermediate field. All three components need to create unity and is usually conceived as a whole. If some components already exist and they are to be retained, while others must be resolved in accordance with them. Perspective and related functional areas of the garden should be similar. If the prospect is projected as a continuation of the space, or functional area, care should be taken on the relationship of their nature and scale. For example, the prospect from the terrace farmhouse, can hardly be a worthy end in the form of the element of the industrial landscape. Prospects for the basic principle is that it justifies its top end but the beginning of the end justifies.
In essence, the whole world is permeated and bound with beautiful outlook, outlook outlook within themselves - small and large. Some of them have a depth of no more than arm's length. Excellent prospects need not be artificially designed - they simply need to find and make visible to the right place. Very important issue, respectively, each such form.
Perspective - a persistent directional magnet for the eyes. The prospect may cause the sensation of movement or rest. Some perspective is certainly static. They are designed for viewing with a certain position and can be seen in its entirety only from this point. Others reveal a few points when moving around the garden.
The prospect is framed by three planes - the upper, horizontal and vertical. Vertical plane - the "wall" garden-may be formed of clipped foliage shrubs, rows of trees or a fence. Plane or ground plane - "garden floor" - can have a slope can be smooth or arranged in the form of terraces, grass, water, paved or other surface. Upper plane - "ceiling" - is in the garden or the sky canopy of foliage spreading trees.
To visually increase the depth of space when the size of the garden is limited, we can consciously create a system of intermediate plans of the plant (called scenes), which direct the gaze to the skyline. To increase the depth of the landscape are placed groups of trees and shrubs so that the distance from the viewer of their size reduced.
The inverse problem - an optical reduction of space - usually occurs at large for the plot, and in cases where the grower wants to visually incorporate the surrounding landscape into the space of my site. To do this, increase the number of scenes and consistently expand review, pushing them apart.
Fence, especially high and hollow, from which at any time hardly could be phased out .- a serious obstacle to establishing direct contact between your garden and surrounding nature. It can mask the plants:
Removing il just hide a prominent wall, where we will add charm garden. The effects of aerial perspective are based on the laws of color perception and emotional impact of his na man.
In nature, endlessly and constantly replaced by the color of plants in general coloration and color of the garden part of the surface of the earth: black couples or lawn, paving and grounds, the color of the sky. including those reflected in the water. and, of course, the color of the house, barn, garden furniture.
It is important that the garden is not the impression of over-the diversity of the chaos of colors.
Emotional color combinations are perceived in different ratios. And they are built according to the rules of color harmony - or on the basis of contrast, or as a combination of shades of one color.
Color is perceived by man to diversify - not a vision, and with the participation of all the senses, including hearing, touch, smell and even taste. There are interesting research on the psychological and physiological effects of color on humans. In 1810. Goethe, in his treatise the Doctrine of the color "wrote:" The colors are the soul. they can cause feelings and thoughts to bring to soothe or excite us, sadness or delight?). Color can create the impression of lightness or gravity of the object, heat or cold, make a person a sense of joy or sorrow.
On the degree of excitation and the nature of the emotional impact of color are in the same manner. in which they appear in the color spectrum. Accordingly, they are divided into warm or active (red, orange, yellow), which are exciting. and cold (blue, blue, violet), which has a sedative effect. Green is in the middle of the spectrum - is "the color of physical balance." Emotional reaction to color has given rise to certain associations, and with them - the symbolism of color.
R. Chen in his book "The Alphabet of Flowers" brings the following people's reaction on colors and their symbolism, established on the basis of generalizations of a series of scientific observations.
Yellow evokes a feeling of warmth, light, sun and liveliness. fun and easy: the greenish-yellow acts as something slightly poisonous, sour, hard (symbols: life, light, joy, luxury, marriage, respect for old age, a bright yellow - jealousy, self-will, hatred. mendacity);
Orange - a warm and festive. lovely, full of life, causes joy, strongly acting (symbols: warmth, joy, sun, power, vanity);
red - the most effective and active color that is hard to suppress the other; bright reds are exciting, offensive, dark - a serious, solid (symbols: life, blood, love, passion, revolution, fire, holiday);
purple - light, but also a dark, solemn, splendid, serves to link the other colors, with a large surface can have a negative effect (symbols: majesty, dignity, luxury, splendor, friendship);
blue - a quiet, hard, rigorous, zoom out cold, but full of energy, the blue tones are as clear, clean, almost wild (symbols: infinity, the distance, longing, loyalty, trust);
Green - connecting, soothing, peaceful, passive, light green, lively, cheerful, dark-green - cool, restrained, recedes into the background next to the yellow, orange and red, but shades the blue (symbols: hope, peace, peace, fertility);
white - neutral, in stark contrast with all the dark color in colorful combinations brings light and excitement, increases the volume (Symbols: innocence, chastity, purity);
black - neutral, reduce volume, as the background increases the effect of yellow and red colors (symbols: mourning, grief, serious solemnity).
Physiological, or therapeutic, effect of colors (color therapy) attracted and attracts the attention of scientists. In some parts of the garden spas are made out of silver-blue tones, organize so-called "blue gardens", a calming effect on the human nervous system. For example, to this end may be used in plants such as prickly spruce (blue form), willow white oleaster and silver, Scilla, Muscari, forget-me-not, lobelia, cornflower, Nigella and many other plants.
Medieval doctors, believing in the magical power of certain colors, tried to color therapy to treat many diseases. Such methods have been partially preserved to this day. French psychiatrists treating schizophrenia patients, placing them in a room with walls painted in a specially selected tone.
More effective in today recognized peyzazheterapiya - treatment of serious nervous and mental diseases in nature, using a specially designed landscape architects and designers of scenery - quiet, sad, happy, creating a sense of security or, conversely, freedom, and spaciousness. When driving on such a garden is not only a change of mood and emotion, medical sensors record the positive physiological responses of the body: lower blood pressure, improve blood composition, etc.
All these facts indicate that different colors have different effects on the human body, and show how great possibilities of landscape design.
All colors are divided into chromatic and achromatic.
Chromatic color - the color spectrum: red, orange, yellow, blue, violet, purple, blue, green (sharp color gradations in the spectrum is not, and these are highlighted on probation).
Achromatic - white, black and all shades of gray. They are characterized by a feeling of lightness or brightness, which is defined as a percentage of the brightness of white.
White as a contrast with all the dark shades, making a light and animation, creating the effect of volume in plant compositions. Black, in contrast, reduces volume and increases the effect of warm colors - yellow and red.
Color characterize the three components: hue, saturation (purity) of color, luminosity (brightness).
Saturation (purity) depends on the degree of "dilution" of the spectral color white. Luminance (brightness) - is the degree of deviation of the color of an achromatic (white), his equal in lightness.
In nature we never see pure, saturated colors. There are, of course, plant species with saturated color, but more often with a dull, blurry.
Increase the feeling of saturation of pale red plants can, for example by placing it next to the green, yellow, including the composition of purple. Method of selection of components can reduce the saturation of any color, placing, for example, next to the bright blue red plant. With a combination of several colors feeling of saturation of each of them also decreases, the closer the colors are arranged in the color wheel. Curiously, all bright colors seem to be light, all dark - heavy. Saturated yellow as it lifts, it seeks up, especially noticeable on a dark background. The blue color is perceived as too lightweight, soaring.
In special textbooks on color science is the perception of the table of colored drawing on the background, painted a different color. This is an example of simultaneous color contrast, which also accounted for in landscape design, especially in the preparation of flower beds.
All the warm colors in daylight impress friends. This is the foreground color, visually approaching us. Cool colors, contrast, distance themselves, they are used to transfer the depths of space. Clean and juicy colors in the distance ever stay in the blue haze. Blue and blue colors at the same time do not change their color, they are even slightly thicken with distance.
At this reception and accommodation based on the background of cold, blue-blue shades. The same effect will remove the placement of the background temnolistvennyh rock, blues and blue spots of flower beds.
In general, the color palette garden has about 130 shades. The general color of scenery does not change three times a year, as many believe, but at least nine times.
Phase 1, early spring (March-early April), the overall flavor of the park is grayish-black;
Phase 2 - Spring (April-early May), is dominated by purple, yellow and green colors of weak saturation and lightness;
3rd phase - late spring (May - early June), plants are painted in soft (mean luminance) greens;
4 th phase - early summer (June - July), is dominated by rich greens;
5 th phase - the end of the second half of summer (July - August) is characterized by a dark green color;
6-Phase I - Fall (September - October) is dominated by yellow and red colors of different saturation;
7-I phase - late autumn (November - December), at which time forests are grayish-brown (slabonasyschenny yellow color);
8-I phase - the beginning of winter (December - January) - slabonasyschennye, blue-violet, gray tones;
9-I phase - the second half of winter (February - March) with a dark gray color.
From early spring to late autumn you can watch nyuansnuyu, Pa on Wednesday seemingly unobtrusive general color garden.
In the spring, summer and autumn color trees is composed of the color of leaves, branches, stem, flowers and fruits, and in winter, and early autumn pozdneosennee time determined by the color of a color rut branches and trunks.
In the world of color creating a small garden are equally important and a common approach to color, and reasoning, elegance in the details. What do you mean? It is important to remember that in the general color of the garden comes in and paint the walls, fences garden, the color of paving and grounds, garden furniture. Red brick and warm wood tones, gray tones of concrete - all those colors occupy its rightful place in the garden.
We have already talked about the dynamics in the color of plants. Not so easy to take into account this factor relatively static painting buildings and paving, but choosing the color of the building (or taking into account the existing one), try to "engage" in colors garden. Choose colors and shades, loved you, caressing your mind, and remember that any new color introduced in the flavor of the garden varies depending on the color of the background.
It is important to learn how to evaluate the color of the object relative to the color of the environment and to the general background. This will give the opportunity to build a track so that the background is not negative, irritating.
It should also be borne in mind that in the twilight of the relations of colors change. Blue and green colors give the impression of light, are in the foreground, the red and yellow - the more remote and deeper. Note that in many respects, these effects also depend on air pollution and its saturation with water vapor.
Most of all "working" color contrasts. For example, if the general dark coloration of the building try to trim the plants are bright, yellow-green or silvery-gray hues of leaves. Good contrast in this case will be gray pavers made of concrete.
Against the white building (plaster, unpainted wood) look spectacular plants with dark foliage, absorbing part of the reflected light. With such a home can be planted barberry, broken flower of the rose red floribunda, "vystelit carpet of dark green foliage creeping vinca. About building a light should be dark, rich color flooring.
If your house is built of brick (warm colors - red, terra cotta), use the cold and neutral tones of plants: blue-green juniper, mahonia, with its gray-green foliage, bluish-silver Loh.
Important and paint the walls of rooms the house, especially where you watch your garden. Garden design should be in harmony with the interior design. Background color can give a general tone and repetition of the green color of the room, and the introduction of striking contrasts.
For example, the color of the upholstery can repeat the range of flowering plants in the garden. Thus, gray-green shades of foliage variegated Elaeagnus or sod can be repeated in the interior, in the general tone of the wallpaper, but it will need to enter accents of color - bright pillows on the couch, curtains. Violet range of upholstery in the room to be the second play of flowering phlox; yellowness curtains - meet golden spike of flowers Forsythia outside the window.
Colors of the garden fence, covering the tracks and platforms should be included in the overall color gamut of the garden, but do not break it, as often happens.
Imagine, for example, what may be the color ratio of house plants and in the case of garden house, occupy a relatively large volume and area of the garden, built of wood and painted in dark colors (brown with white details - windows, doors, eaves), and has a dark brown roof. On the background of the wall will stand out spectacularly bright green foliage and bark of a small group of birches. Track to the house can be put out of brick - its highlight ridges of daisies. Making your home will complete a group of several bushes chubushnika zolotistolistnogo with its fragrant white flowers and a constant white-yellow colored foliage.
Quite another to be a solution for the garden house, made of silica brick or having plastered white walls. At the entrance you can plant a tree with dark foliage - it could be cherry or apple trees (including the beautiful blooming pink double flowers, apple Niedzwiecki). Paving of light concrete slabs will be the backdrop for a low hedge of sheared cotoneaster with its shiny dark foliage, which you emphasize the basement of the building. In the shadow of cotoneaster assume the reflected light off the walls. Piece of lawn in front of the house can be replaced by a wonderful groundcover, vinca. Its dark evergreen foliage in early spring is decorated with numerous pink or blue flowers. You can sit here with a dark juniper needles or bush park roses with delicate carmine colored flowers.
The Chinese theory of space-color solution is somewhat different from the usual us European. According to this theory, a man so accustomed to the color scheme of nature, which abhors any violation of the established order. From this it follows that when choosing colors for any architectural structure plane base must be sustained in the colors of the earth - in shades of clay, stones, gravel, sand, forest humus and moss. Blue and blue-green tones of water, reminiscent of its volatile surface applied to the base plane or tracks rarely and only in places where access is undesirable. Structural elements of the walls and roof colors shall be communicated to the trunk and branches of the tree - black, brown, dark gray, red and ocher. Wall surface in the depth of borrow their tone from the thicket of bamboo, wisteria drooping lashes, streaming sunlight, pine boughs and interlacing branches of maple. Color of the ceiling should remind lightness of the sky and change from a deep azure blue or watery-green to whitish, cloudy, hazy or soft gray tones.
There is a system that establishes a structure for each primary color. All other colors to the primary would be his "twigs, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits." In this arrangement, you can feel connected organic color system, similar to the one. which has a tree, highlands, valley, or any item or object of nature.
In the practice of modern landscape design uses three basic rules of color harmony to help you make the composition of plants:
• any color on a background of contrasting perceived as more intense, a combination of contrasting colors can enhance the overall richness patterns;
• a combination of certain colors is reduced sense of their richness, and the more closer the colors are arranged in the color wheel;
• contrast the stronger the more the differences in lightness and saturation.
Contrasts can be color (a combination of different tones at equal brightness) and brightness (a combination of different brightnesses, equal in color).
Colors that lie on opposite ends of the color wheel are contrasting (blue - orange, yellow - purple, blue - red, green - purple).
In general, the color contrast - this is an exaggeration of actual differences between simultaneous sensations. Simultaneous contrast is widely used in practice to enhance the apparent color saturation by placing them next to the contrast.
Contrasting combinations can be obtained by increasing the number of additional colors by entering the appropriate place of the circle blue-green and yellow-green.
Contrasting them to be, respectively, red and purple.
By harmonious (pleasant to the eye) color combinations include not only the contrasting (red and green, orange and blue, yellow and purple), but nyuansnye combination, distinguished by lightness within a certain color (pale pink - pink - bright red) .
If on chromatic background to put the chromatic pattern, the color image as would be added to the contrasting background color and is perceived as new.
For example, on a red background orange color looks like yellow, yellow - green, green noticeably golubeet. The bright green background red and blue become purple, yellow is closer to orange.
In addition to the harmonious color combinations exist and disharmonious (inharmonious).
Inharmonious combinations such as red and purple, blue and green, red and orange, it is necessary to neutralize the achromatic colors. To do this, on the border of the color combinations are introduced white, gray, silver, rare - black.