Plan and the script will need if you intend to hire a specialist in landscape design (they will be subject to negotiations), or if you want to deal with holiday makers on their own creativity. They will be useful regardless of whether it is a new, untouched piece of land with a spade, a house with a plot in the cottage, or grandmother of six acres to the dacha.
Related article: Landscaping. Irrigation systemsFor those wishing to learn the basics of landscape design produced a lot of respectable publications - most of them translated. The only problem is that imported books on landscape design, as a rule, addressed to the owners of tiny gardens and farmers prefer to start the Russian master, spacious territory. In addition, the main problem of European sites - drained soil, but in our area of forests and wetlands as natural humus that although the export sent. In this case, the development of the site without a plan and scenario development of the territory - the more money down the drain. Only planned and ennobled a corner and immediately overwhelmed the other. Cleared the woods in the area of the dead, but freed from the soil mulch overgrown with weeds. Where to start?
Do you have a plan?
In the arsenal of landscape designers a lot of computer programs to develop projects and consider them in any projections. But this is - for professionals. As soon as the object of our attention - a single garden, we strongly recommend them entertained: virtual design delays. «Back to the land" will be difficult. In particular, the landscape designer Olga Voronova, author of books and numerous articles on landscaping work for beginners, recommends that in the preparation of these projects use the graph paper and tracing paper. The most obvious is a project created on a scale of 1:100 (one meter in the corresponding centimeter on paper), using tracing paper and pencil set.
Pre-make the site a photo session to capture the problematic places: take a picture of boulders, groups of trees, changes in topography, buildings. Then, from the documents of title, transfer to paper the site plan. Do not forget to designate part of the world. Notice of construction, topographic features (depressions, elevations, ditches, slope). Pay attention to what is in the neighboring territories - forests, water, roads, construction of the neighbors. But, having made such a plan, take your time to start planning. During the site will have to observe: to reveal the warm, cold, and wetlands, to trace the movement of shadows during the day. Watching the shadows of the buildings, put them on a plan of intersecting strokes (morning - day - evening). So you tap the area of light shade, as well as those where there is no sun. All this comes in handy when you are thinking about placing sports grounds, children's play area, gazebo for evening relaxation.
It is necessary to know the level of groundwater and soil composition. To do this, make a few shallow wells brown garden. Typically, in different parts of the site - different thickness topsoil. Also, in different places special indicator strips - they are sold there, where they sell garden tools and planting materials - conduct rapid analysis of soil acidity. It may be acidic or alkaline, but in our region is dominated by acidic. Data on the composition of the soil, as well as the groundwater level is important in the preparation of dendroplan and can make important amendments to the draft. For example, you may have to abandon the apple orchard in that part of the territory, where the ground water are high (the only solution in this case - to plant fruit trees on the hills).
Work on the project
After gathering information, we will design. When zoning is usually distinguished residential area - a main house, guest house, summer kitchen, a courtyard, a recreation area - is a barbecue area, swimming pool, playground, formal garden, the economic - the garden, barn, garage, workshop. We have to show them on the project in the form of spots of arbitrary shape, but not on the graph paper (the one with all the already short supply), and on tracing paper. On the other tracing paper plot the track. They should be comfortable and wide enough, but they should not be straight as arrows: it will be nice, but if you have a regular park of several hectares. Avoid dead ends and right angles, and the tracks merge into a single route to any point of the plot veli at least two ways.
Now we understand with trees and shrubs. On graph paper, obviously, already marked the ones that are. Planting, which are supposed to do circles indicate the corresponding value in the following sheet tracing paper. At the same time be sure to find in reference books on agricultural dimensions of crowns of mature trees and the recommended distance for planting. Otherwise, when a tiny Christmas trees will grow, you have to wade through the woods. Placing flower beds, keep in mind the requirements of plants to light - for that, we hatched the plan to the shadows. Remember that the perfect solution for the northern garden - evergreen conifers, which makes no sense to hide deep in the plot. However, they do not like waterlogged and poorly drained soils.
Options for vertical gardening are worthy of separate publication, but all kinds of walls, pergolas, trellises and arches help disguise unsightly neighboring buildings.
For the lazy and the observation
Several years ago, Russia's new homeowners sought to completely reshape the acquired areas: choose "bad" soil, bring a new and start planning, so to speak, from scratch. Today, such a radical and requires considerable expenditure decision is not welcome, is more popular ecological approach. Why tear down one quaint carpet that wove thousands nature?
First, you can always turn the disadvantages into advantages: you can save the beautiful big trees, very heavy boulder will be the basis for an alpine slide, a mound, which appeared after the chosen ground for laying trenches or excavation of construction sites - the foundation of the future of the garden (if the ground is Water high). You can barely noticeable trickle flow and make clear the pond. Passing through the section of the drainage ditch can also be profitable to beat.
Second, a decision that usually arises when it comes to wetlands and forest areas - good drainage and a radical reduction in groundwater levels. But such activities require little care. Mature trees will survive such interference, and cowberry (which, incidentally, like trees, growing tens of years) would not be easy. And if you do not intend to radically reshape the landscape, pick plants that will be comfortable in your environment.
Thirdly, the lawn at the site - this is a good flooring in the house. According to it, nice to walk barefoot, but it requires care. If you do not have a gardener, there is no point in turning the entire lawn area. But it still will have to regularly mow, weed, heal, restore, feed ... This work will eat all of your weekend. Usually it is sufficient to allocate to the lawn area in front of a small house, and Draw the edge of the curb and drainage ditches. In regard to all other areas of the site, there dendrologists recommend to look closely to the local flora, neatly "hooked" on the part of those or other ornamental plants. Hard to reach corners and narrow passageways between buildings and fences is better - if possible - get rid of the vegetation, for example, paved with cobblestones, to be able to forget about them for a long time.
And finally, garden and park design - interactive art. In it, as in any other art, should be subject. Your landscape is changing with the change of season and time of day. All these details will have to take into account dendroplan developing and designing the track, and in considering the lighting. In addition, the entire area should not be, so to speak, at a glance. Forms and details view should open immediately, but gradually. For example, looking into a nook on a winding path, your guests will see the bench. And at the appointed hour at her through your crown preserved pine slips a ray of sunlight. It is for these solutions, you took the time to redraw everything, and watching the site and watched the games of nature.