In that water - one of the most important components of life support, to persuade is not necessary.
Drinking water is required not so much - about 3 liters per person per day. In extreme cases it can bring - are commercially available bottles of drinking water for up to 20 liters.
Household demand for water is not so modest, they represent about 120-250 liters per person. per day. And when you need to ensure that garden watering, filling swimming pools, fountains and other food, the numbers are impressive. And if you can not connect to the centralized water supply system, it is necessary to extract water, literally from the ground.
Water consumption per person in accordance with the regulations:
* When supplying the column away from home - 40 l;
* If you have a home water and sewage - 120-150 hp;
* Same with bathroom and hot water (water boiler for solid fuel, gas water heater) - 180 l;
* Hot water system with multiple sinks, bathrooms and showers - 250 liters.
Norms of daily water consumption on the plot:
Watering (per 1 square. M) - 4 l;
For greenhouses - 6 liters.
For livestock and poultry:
* Cow - 60 l;
* Bird - 1 - 1,5 l;
Water pressure at the inlet:
* A one-storey house - 10 m;
* A two-storey house - 14 am
When precipitation penetrating through the top (filtration) layer of soil (see Fig. 24), they sink lower and lower, until they stop the impermeable layer of soil, which usually consists of dense fat clay soils. Here the water collects in the roughness of the upper boundary layer, thereby forming a water-bearing lenses or continuous layers (horizons) with an admixture of sand, clay, earth, gravel.
If the water finds a path (pores, cracks, permeable inclusions) in the waterproof layer, it seeps below and fill interstratal cavity between two impermeable layers.
Thus, depending on the shape and depth of the impermeable layers of underground layers can be located at different altitudes:
* Up to 4 feet (perched);
* Up to 10 meters (ground water);
* Up to 40 meters (interstratal water);
* More than 40 meters (artesian water).
All this is free, or gravity, water (they are free to move under the influence of gravity) - unlike the so-called bound water, which are held in the rocks, such as molecular forces, and in the underground circulation is not involved.
Fig. 24. Groundwater: 1 - perched 2 - ground water, 3 - interstratal water, 4 - artesian water.
Perched water - water that is formed at shallow depths, just below the top, a filtering layer of soil due to seepage (filtering) of precipitation. I perched as a source of water two serious drawbacks: it neochischena, it can penetrate human waste water from the latrine or other contamination (not suitable for drinking). It is seasonal, as nourish it rains and melted snow water.
Ground water - this is the closest to the surface of the aquifer. In contrast to the vadose he is always there, regardless of the season. Subterranean aquifer, thus, lies below the perched water. Below that is a waterproof layer, which does not allow groundwater to leave this layer. Subterranean aquifer - free-flow: if the drill or dig a pit, pit to the water table, its level remains the same.
Groundwater is not only stable but also much cleaner perched, as filtered by the upper layer of soil. Therefore, these waters may well be used for autonomous supply of suburban housing.
Below the groundwater occur horizons interstratal waters. They are separated from the water table or semi-impermeable to water species. This aquifer may be a pressurized, pressure (as it is artesian water) and free-flow. Feed on ground water or from the surface or from the overlying layers of water. If the pressure ground water come to the surface, formed keys, or springs. They are often found in the lowlands: in gullies, ravines, at the foot of the slopes.
Artesian water are most preferred for water supply: they are perfectly cleaned by filtering through impermeable layers are stable and do not require energy for pumping water to the surface.
Where to dig?
Sometimes, of course, that the water near the house would never find, for example, if under the soil lies a solid rock slab. There's nothing you can do. But more often than the water beneath us there. We assume that accompanies us luck.
Look for underground water - is an art in which people have mastered in ancient times. Scent of water professionals of this case are enhanced with the help of simple tools - vines, branches with a fork like a slingshot.
Lozohodets is on the ground, guided by his mysterious instinct, and the hand holding light lozinku. He keeps it barely without pinching in my hand, so as not to disturb the vine to give him a sign. Where underground water, the vine will tremble: the plane of the fork will rotate around its axis.
In the old days lozohodtsy could not explain his gift, in our days the passion extrasensory theorists of this case as if all figured out and perfected the simple device, replacing the wooden rogatinku science-based wire-arrow (Fig. 25). Anyway, as the water lozohodets whether or hydrogeologist usually find.
Figure 25. Lozohodtsa tool: a - vine, b, c - wire arrow.
The best time to dig a well - end of August, a time when groundwater is below the total cost.
Of course, water does not ask where it is more convenient to come to the surface, but it is advisable to water abstraction, particularly the well, located upstream of groundwater away from the toilet, cesspool, and more.
Sinelnikov VS "Engineering systems Country house"