Creating a decorative pond - it is quite troublesome. A small pond can be arranged even on their own. To do this, it is best to use a plastic cup, easy to use and relatively inexpensive. But for a large pond will not only have to dig a pit surround, take away the soil, but it concreted bottom and sides. For the last operation require special knowledge and experience of construction works, significant human and financial costs. Therefore it is better to entrust this business professionals. Today, many landscaping firms engaged in the design, gardening and landscaping areas, arrange pools, and occasionally provide services to care for them.
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Experts say that the ideal place for a pond - an area which is covered in the summer sun from morning until half of the 11th, and from 11 to 15 hours is in the penumbra. Shading during the midday heat has a positive effect on water quality. Also, choosing a place, you should consider that next to the pond should not grow trees or their roots may eventually damage the bottom and waterproof, and fallen leaves - to cause increased growth of algae. Therefore, trees should be located not less than the height of the trunk.
Be sure to provide access to the pond on all sides, so that was convenient for him to look after. To do this around the perimeter of the track or make a subtle trail that skirts the lake, despite possible obstacles - a waterfall or stream. In such places are usually placed a few tiles or stones. Greatly facilitates the maintenance of the water orientation of the longitudinal axis of the pond along the direction of prevailing winds. In this case, the wind will be nailed to the shore floating on the surface of leaves and other debris, where they are easy to catch.
Ponds are not satisfied with only the blue, but the steep terrain. In this case, they inserted into the base of the terrace, or rely on its base. If the terrace is large and fairly steep terrain, it is possible to construct several water bodies, placing them next to each other so that water flowed from one to another (cascade).
Bowl of the pond can not only be recessed into the ground, and rise above the surface. The latter option will cost more - will need additional material for the erection of walls and wall speakers. In cold winters it is problematic enough to have raised the pond as the water is completely frozen, and in violation of building technologies can suffer lining the walls.
How to be a pond: big or small?
Experts say that it is inappropriate to construct a reservoir area of less than 3.5 m2 and a depth of less than 80 cm, and its shallow part shall not exceed two-thirds of the surface. The water in these areas warms up quickly, and dead plants, and waste products of fish, which fell to the bottom, release nutrients that cause algal blooms that then die off rapidly, absorbing oxygen from the water. And because of the lack of oxygen begins to rot pond: water is becoming murky and gives off an unpleasant odor. The smaller the pond, the more often you will see such unpleasant phenomena. But if the bowl to make the pond deep enough, or to protect the mirror pond from overheating (shade plants floating on the surface of leaves or build a pergola on the south side) to slow the heating of the bottom and you do not have to constantly take care of the pond. Of course, I would not even deal with the purification of water. But without your help small pond volume can not function normally. Only artificial ponds with a surface area of 100 m2, constructed according to the rules and well-populated fish and vegetation may exist as a separate ecosystem, full lives due to internal biological processes. But the big pond is rarely satisfied in backyards, so we pay attention to small ponds. Their livelihoods have to be supported by a permanent artificial water filtration.
Another problem of a small body of water - freezing in winter, resulting in the death of all its inhabitants. To avoid this, it must be deep enough. And that lack of oxygen and excess hydrogen sulfide is not all life died in a frozen pond, make a small hole. Plants and fish from small ponds in the winter need to move into the room.
Where to get water
When the close is pure spring or well, to fill the pond water does not pose much difficulty. You can fill the pond and tap water. If it contains a large amount of chlorine, it can withstand a few days prior to the tank. Perfect for rain-water pond, but how long will it collect, especially hot and dry summer?
Sometimes not only serves as a reservoir for decorative purposes, but also helps to lower the groundwater level at the site. If there is excessive moisture in the base of the house (the basement), near the home arrange pool stick. It is filled with ground water through the drain well and surface water. For the removal of excess water in its bottom wall or install a drain pipe, a second end which is directed to a special gutter, ditch, ravine.
Fill the pond with water only once per season, and only then topped it, compensating for evaporation. This can be done manually or by means of a pump equipped with an electron or a simple float sensor that determines the level of the water.
The finished pond
The easiest and fastest way to create a body of water - to get ready. Today, specialized firms offer a wide range of bowls of different shapes, sizes and depths, made primarily from polyvinyl chloride. They are quite durable, frost resistant and suitable for the breeding of plants and fish. The service life of plastic containers for at least 20 years of age. Volume - 140 to 1000 liters. Cost - from 50-300. is, the minimum dimensions of the finished pond: length 135 cm, width 90 cm, depth 39 cm, volume 140 liters of water surface area of 0.85 m2, the weight of 3 kg. There are bowls and plenty of length 280 cm, width 140 cm, depth 65 cm, volume 950 liters of water surface area of 3.5 m2, weight 23 kg. Experts advise to get the bowl depth of 80 cm and a volume of 800 l to summer in the pond water is warmed gradually. This creates favorable conditions for fish and plants. The main advantage of ready-made body of water - fast and easy installation. First, dig a pit to a depth of bowl, a width greater than its circuit about 30 cm bottom tamped and covered with a layer of sand 5 cm to the basis of the bowl evenly the load from the water. Then set the bowl (1) and verifies its horizontal position (2). After that, the gaps between the walls of the cup and poured foundation pit with sand, gently compressing it (3). Along the edges of the pond plants are planted in specially provided for the purpose of deepening, as well as draw up the coastal edge of the tile or natural stone (4).
A pond with his hands
If the proposed piece assortment of water and generally do not like you want to create a large pool complex configuration, will stock up on necessary materials and to spend a lot of effort and money. Before starting construction work needed to carry out geotechnical investigations to identify the nature of the soil and the groundwater level. If the latter is greater than 2 m around the pond will have to make drainage. To do this, at the bottom of the trench drains are placed. With their help, as will be to get out excess water, which appeared as a result of overfilling the bowl in the rain.
The device of the reservoir begins with the markup of its contours. If you want to make a pond of irregular shape, a line can be marked up, laying on the ground a long rope. If you prefer a square or rectangular shape, to mark the corners need to hammer pegs and tighten the rope between them. After this pit dug inside the outline of a given depth with flat walls. If the bank is too steep, you can make a few benches. To the water level in the pond was a constant, and that it was not muddy at the bottom and side walls put waterproofing materials. It is best suited for this special film made of PVC, polyethylene and synthetic rubber (ordinary plastic sheeting for this purpose does not apply, because a couple of years it may be rendered unusable). In addition to the film can be purchased at the store and a special synthetic material underlayment designed to protect the film from the rocks and roots (small size reservoirs built without the underlying material, to a large presence of its required).
After excavation is completed, removed from the surface of roots and rocks begin to level and seal the bottom and sides of the base, making them flat (not steeper than 45 °). Then cover the bottom layer of moist sand (10 cm), the protective lining of the stele and placed the film in such a way that it went beyond the contour of the pond is 30-50 cm (to make sure that the film was not taut). At the bottom of the film press down the stone. The resulting folds are uniformly distributed over the entire inner surface of the pit. Protruding beyond the edge and spread out, giving the film manufactured for waterproofing the walls and bottom of the pool are strong on the break, are resistant to ultraviolet rays and sub-zero temperatures, do not shrivel and crumble over time. They do not contain toxic substances (cadmium, barium, lead), and therefore suitable for ponds, where they will live fish and frogs. For ponds up to 5 m2 area and a depth of no more than 80 cm thick film using 0.5-1 mm. At a depth of 1 m and an area of over 15 m2 -1,2-2 mm. Number of films were determined by preliminary calculation. To calculate use the maximum size of length, width and depth of the water (the length of the film must be equal to the length of the pond, to which was added to the military beats the depth and width, the width of the pond, to which was added to twice the depth plus two feet on each side). Try to choose a film to make it in one piece covers the entire body of water, and go beyond its limits by at least 30 centimeters (best - 50 cm). If the film is not enough, it is placed overlapping. In this film of polyvinyl chloride in the joints are glued with special glue, which let the producers of film materials, and made of synthetic rubber - sealed. Welding is performed in the factory or on-site construction of the reservoir is filled with stones. After that, begin to slowly fill the pit with water, the film is stretched at the same time, firmly adhering to the bottom and walls. When the cup is filled, the surplus of the film in a clean uniform folds throughout the coastline. Bent edge of the material is cut precisely, leaving a margin of 20-30 cm, and fixed in a few places with metal studs. The edges of the pond decorated with stone (such as fieldstone) or tiles. Coverage is placed either on the entire coastline, or at intervals that fill with pebbles or gravel. Speakers can fold the edges of the film and fill with soil, gravel or river pebbles.
Sometimes it is used for waterproofing of fiberglass mats that plank in three layers. The mats have so that each layer is slightly dropped in the previous one. All layers are impregnated with resin, and the top is covered with paint the color you want.
A more time-consuming and expensive, but at the same time, more capital is a pond with a bowl made of reinforced concrete. Concrete bowls are usually made for large ponds regular geometric shapes (bowls of irregular shape is much more difficult to produce). For the first unit of the reservoir bottom and sides of the pit covered with tar paper, using it as a waterproofing layer. Tolev coating must be done lapped and lubricated with molten bitumen. The edges are folded on the edge of the pond and the stones are pressed. Then put a layer of gravel (10-15 cm), and on it - a layer of sand. The sand is laid concrete mixture (13 cm). Then, without letting the concrete harden on the surface, gently pushing, put a metal grid. When the concrete has hardened (5-7 days), lay out the next layer.
In order for the pond is not flowing, thick soup on the bottom and sides should be the same everywhere. Concreting should be done continuously until completion, there will be no joints between the hardened and fresh concrete. In order to avoid cracking it is covered with plastic wrap or a damp burlap. For concreting steep banks - more than 45 ° - constructing a wooden mold. It is inserted rebar and pour concrete before it hardens the bottom. Formwork removed after complete curing of the concrete. The walls and bottom of the pond decorate with natural stone, mosaics, and the coast, stone or ceramic tile, brick. Concreted ponds during the season is filled with water three or four times or more (until the water is clean) and fully drained it.
If the site is clay, water-resistant bowl can be drawn from it. But, despite the availability of material and, compaction of clay - the process is rather time consuming. In addition, over time, plant roots can penetrate the clay layer.
For the device first bowl knead the clay with water to test the state in which it does not stick to the shovel. She draped the bottom layer of 15 cm, carefully utrambovyvaya. When the layer dries, repeat this step two more times. As each layer of shrink about 5 cm, the final coating thickness is obtained 35-40 cm and then just reinforce the clay edge of the pool (15 cm above the expected level of water). In the top layer of clay after the final drying vtrambovyvayut layer (2-3 cm), coarse gravel. For finishing on top of gravel poured 5-7 cm gravel or sand.
If there is clay and are having difficulty with the acquisition of the film, an insulating layer can be made of tar paper or roofing felt. To do this, the bottom of the pool and across the bitumen promazyvayut first sheet stack a second layer of material. The ends of the folded edge of the reservoir and evenly trimmed. The edges of the frame reinforced concrete board, or stone parapet. In the first case it is made right there in a wooden mold, which is removed after the concrete hardens, the second - placed stones on the cement-sand mortar. In small basins, the ends of the roofing felt better start under a concrete slab laid on a cement-sand mortar.
Plants for the pond
Beaches and very artificial pond often foresters plant ornamental plants, make it look more natural. Used plant experts are divided on the shore - growing in shallow water along the shoreline (cane, arrowhead, marsh marigold, calla), water - increasing the water (algae) and floating on the water surface (water-lily, lily, duckweed, Potbelly, heart-Pontedera, chastuha Common, floating fern). Are thrown on the shore of moisture-loving species (Volzhanka, iris, loosestrife, loosestrife, forget-me). Water and coastal plants improve water quality by reducing its content of nutrients, the high number of which leads to a proliferation of algae. Aquatic plants are planted in a special fine-meshed basket (container) square, round, oval, filled with a nutrient mixture, and set in a pond, so they do not float, and easily removed from the pond for the winter. The use of containers is much easier to control plant growth and care, as their stems are not intertwined. Planting areas for steep bank landing used cloth (made from natural coconut) with pockets for planting.
Some aquatic plants multiply rapidly and can clog the other flora. Mass multiplication of microscopic algae leads to algal blooms, causing it to become opaque. Algae do not harm plants and serve as food for fish, but a muddy pond looks ugly. Algal blooms can be prevented by using special chemicals, but it is better to use natural way, which means to strike a balance between plants of different species. For this third part of the surface of the pond (not taken into account the coastal shallows) that cover the floating or sticking out of the water leaves (per square meter of surface shall be at nine submerged plants that can be placed anywhere - not necessarily equally).
In addition to the surface of the water plant can be decorated with a fountain, which sprays will create their own mood, to enliven the surface of the mirror, to give it extra charm. In addition, a fountain increases the oxygen content in water and thus improves the environmental conditions for aquatic plants and pond inhabitants.
There are fountains on the market specifically designed for installation in ponds. They work with the pump. The pumps are designed for long-term continuous operation (for example, within a day or more). They are sold together with a cable length from 5 to 15 meters and nozzles. With a wide range of nozzles, which are placed on top of the pump, you can specify the shape and direction of movement of the water fountain (up, sideways, down, or the combined areas, as well as the rotation of the jets). The most common model tips the "bell" (reminiscent of the hemisphere, hollow inside), "geyser" (imitates the natural churning underground spring), "fish tail" (water beats up the individual jets at an angle of 30-40 °), "French Lily" (a the shape of a flower), etc. More complex to design nozzles spray water in tiers, or spirals, resembling in shape, a fan or a bird's tail, have some water luminous rays, etc. By varying the pressure, you can adjust the height, distance of the jet, and its thickness depends the diameter of the nozzle. Submersible pumps are installed on the bottom - on the rocks or special supports. During their work are taken from the pond, and then pouring it back. The market is represented by a large number of manufacturers of fountain pumps: AL-KO (Germany), GARDENA (Germany), OASE (Germany), SPERONI (Italy), TETRA (Germany), etc.
The kit may include a pump filter, telescopic extension, fountain nozzles, underwater lights, transformers, cables, remote control. To facilitate the selection of the firms have product catalogs to the table, you can use to calculate the required power for a particular fountain pump, depending on the height of lift (head) and the amount of water supplied.
The pond can be not only a beautiful day and night. To do this, it should highlight. On sale are floating on the water surface lights, underwater, or permanently installed in the system of floating light at different depths. They are fitted with reflectors for a good spread of light. Made of material resistant to temperature change, the impact of different kinds of precipitation, and mechanical shock.
From time to time in the pond water is dirty and needs cleaning. This problem can be solved in different ways: mechanical, biological, chemical, and with the help of ultraviolet radiation.
Mechanically clean the pond of debris floating on the surface, excess water plants. You can use an ordinary butterfly net or a special device - a skimmer, which is installed directly into the pond. Its upper edge is just below the water surface. During the skimmer sucks water and floating debris that accumulates on the filter (eg, Skimmer from OASE is a German company with 70. E).
To clean the bottom and sides of the pond algae and silt build-up can take advantage of "underwater vacuum cleaner" which sucks the dirty water, mud, algae, dead plant remains, and returns the clean water. Sam is on the shore of a vacuum cleaner, and a pond clean with a hose with a nozzle through which you can clean even the narrow gaps between the stones. After filling out the garbage container (capacity 30 liters) a vacuum cleaner is turned off.
You can clean the water and by mechanical filters (quartz sand, gravel, etc.), built-in container. Water flowing into the filter, driven by the pump. Pump capacity is adjusted according to the amount and type of pond filter.
To normalize the structure, restore the pH level, saturate with oxygen to dissolve unwanted algae, etc., the water is subjected to chemical treatment. To do this, there are plenty of differing degrees of effectiveness. Most of them are designed for short-term effect. Applying them, we must strictly observe the regulations on dosage, because excessive doses, they are harmful not only for fish and plants, but also for humans.
To restore the biological balance of water purification from organic and nutrients, reducing sediment at the bottom of the reservoir, controlling the breeding of algae and duckweed also apply various biological products. They are harmless to humans, animals, fish and plants. The size and number of filter material is determined depending on the size of the reservoir and the distribution of fish (before applying you need to carefully read the manufacturer's recommendations on the packaging). After 3-6 months of filters are changed. Filters of biological treatment is often used in combination with mechanical filtration.
Water can be cleaned with the help of ultraviolet radiation, which leads to the destruction of small particles of algae, harmful viruses and bacteria. Typically, ultraviolet purifiers (self-cleaning UV lamp) connected to a pump that pumped water through them. That the water became clear after a few days, you should pick up in the forests of this power, which would be enough to clear the full amount of the water of the pond. Then, without professional assistance from not enough.
Cleaning the pond can be done in stages in different ways. Using only one of them, in most cases ineffective. For example, using ultraviolet light can kill the algae, and remove them from the water will have a mechanical way.
Due to the fact that we have to use different types of treatment, they may be using different devices or a multilocular, consisting of a filter system. Although such a device is more expensive, more convenient to use it: water supplied to a pump, passes successively through several compartments, subjected to different treatment: mechanical, biological, ultraviolet (eg, filters, PF 6000 and PF1000 (GARDENA) closed system provides a high pressure biomechanical action removes large and small particles, and improves water quality through the biofilter). Number of filter cells is selected depending on the volume of the pond and the distribution of animals. An important indicator is the performance of filters. To choose the right filter, it is better to turn to professionals who, taking into account all the features of the reservoir (the parameters, the presence of plants and fish), choose the most suitable equipment. If you decide to do it yourself by choosing a set (pump, filters), use the products of one company, as they combine with each other. To ensure water quality, buy a wand indicator. With it you can quickly and easily find the most important parameters of water.