Half-timbered houses from the fashion-saving

05.01.2011 12:30
Articles about the construction | Half-timbered houses from the fashion-saving
Germany fachwerk appeared in the XV century., Rightfully earning the title of today one of the oldest methods of construction. Naturally, the style got its name from the German word Fachwerk (Fach - bar, section, cell, Werk - construction). Most active users of this method of construction used in the XVI century. in Western Europe, as well as in Japan. In other words, the use of Half-timbered houses was quite justified in countries where it was necessary to think about saving wood.

Classic Half-timbered houses is a frame from the horizontal, vertical and diagonal wooden cabins beams. The space between the beams is filled with stone, brick, panels with insulation or any other material. Rigid frame made of wood and just serves as a supporting structure, while the walls are just filler elements. Strictly speaking, timber frame construction used by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and Chinese. So, according to some reports, Half-timbered houses in the building is used for nearly four thousand years. More advanced prototypes of half-timbered houses, as historians believe, may be called the old buildings of the European steel mills. Represent they like the design of deep buried vertical wooden poles, combined with horizontal and inclined beams, bound into a rigid support frame, on which rested the roof.

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Over time, from a sunken pillars refused because of their decay in the ground and therefore short-lived service. Method of installation of half-timbered structures on horizontal ties and logs, and later on a foundation of stone, emerged only in the XV century.

It should be noted that Half-timbered houses, among other things, also played a decorative role, as the wall panels had been taken to plaster and decorate, as a rule, light colors, and the skeleton of the dark beams left on the mind. That he shared the facade of the individual cells of various shapes and gave the house a unique grace and style, which became the main architectural feature and the card Half-timbered houses. And in an effort to outdo the neighbors burghers secured the end of XVI - early XVII centuries. their half-timbered houses decorated with florid carved panels.

At the same time German Half-timbered houses of frame construction similar technology originated in the Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland and Scandinavian countries. In France, this technique called "kolombazh. In England, the house with a wooden frame called by half ¬ timbered or timber ¬ framed (poluderevyannaya or a wooden frame) and added to the filler for heat fleece. Another common name for the frame structures was the name of Post & Beam - «reck-beam.

Structures of this type are widely used in construction of residential houses, farm buildings, towers, town halls, churches, hotels, mills and even small palaces.

There were a half-timbered houses and local features. For example, in Britain and France made their pointed vertically-striped, and in Germany "razlinovyvali" differently, but the general trend towards the creation of beautiful ornaments on the facade. Considerable influence on fachwerk provided and architectural era - Gothic, Baroque ...

They say that in the old half-timbered houses you can still see the Roman numerals, which marked the beam, before taking his place in the design. There are there and special notches made in order to more easily to the frame sticking plaster.
Half-timbered houses, houses in Germany
Fashion on the Half-timbered houses, unfortunately, began to disappear in the XVIII century .- with the emergence of new styles in architecture. Half-timbered buildings suddenly seemed old-fashioned Europeans and the poor: they have less to build. About Cellular-striped "gingerbread" houses people again remembered only two centuries later.

Dream striped
Second Coming fachwerk happened all in the same old Europe, where the principles of frame housing, as it turns out, is still dear to the hearts of any wealthy citizen. Well, almost any. It happened in 1970 .- in the early era of post-modernism in architecture, when the German architects Valtor Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - the founders of functionalism and constructivism - have begun to build buildings with steel or concrete frame and complete with glass facades. Thus was "old-new" Half-timbered houses.

Half a century later, after the introduction of a new, previously unknown material - laminated veneer lumber, which over time would not let the cracks and did not change its geometry, the principles of the new Half-timbered houses have been used in wooden construction.
We touch the positive changes and walls. These heavy materials such as bricks, use longer - monolithic wall fell out of fashion, they were replaced by добротный lightweight insulating material and a rigid casing, which provided a thermal circuit with high heat ¬ - and soundproof fachwerk, homes germaniisvoystvami.

New materials have allowed not only to preserve the color of the old half-timbered buildings, but also provide comfort and durability of the residence buildings. In addition, immediately decided several engineering tasks: construction was tough and very stable, still allowing the wood to save and complete the construction in the shortest possible time.
In contemporary Germany there are about 2 million buildings in the style of Half-timbered houses, including the very old, studying the design of which can trace the history of this trend in architecture. Prestigious and popular, they remain in Sweden, England, Switzerland and many other European cities. A recent half-timbered houses were seen in Russia.

Behind glass
Modern Timber framing has little in common with the traditional. Squeezing nostalgic medieval houses, he found a very futuristic shape, leaving the memory of his ancestor a wooden frame (of course, of plywood) and is more than paying tribute to the glazing from floor to ceiling.

Imagine this: large windows, large terraces, walls of glass and well behind the green pine forest, lake and sunbeams - the beauty of Half-timbered houses, houses in germaniipeyzazha from the eyes, nothing obscure.
If you have windows and energy saving, the heat inside they miss more than the outside, and, despite its apparent "brittle" glass house practically does not lose heat. In this weather outside may be what you want, but inside the house with modern glazed and heated floors, will always be comfortable.

In addition, it splashes and pozharoustoychiv not afraid of rot, and beetle-borers to profit in a glass "Small Palace" nothing.
According to experts, Half-timbered houses - the only system to date, allowing to do without ¬ frame glazing into the wall. In addition, due to ease of construction can be waived by the construction of deep foundation, which significantly reduces construction time.

That the Germans were well ...
In Russia, as you know, problems with the forest has never happened before, and the climate erection of frame-panel houses are not favored. Maybe so, maybe for some other unknown reason, fachwerk held in high esteem and has never been met except on the margins of empire, where ¬-something in the Baltics, and then only because the Germans, who prefer nostalgia to build a shelter, both at home.

Among the Russian manors half-timbered style was seen only after the accession to the throne of Peter I: a passionate admirer of the Dutch, he could not pay attention to the original and attractive buildings. The fashion for such buildings appeared, but did not last long, subsided, leaving behind a ghost in the form of several estates in Sheremetievskiy Kuskovo and Ostankino. Most of the same to our times, alas, did not survive.

During the Soviet desire zaimet own house, and even in the bourgeois style architecture, could be the last in life, but because the Soviet people for the most part agree on the tiny dachas, hastily put together from plywood and painted a gloomy blue-green color.

Companies engaged in half-timbered building, we have started to appear only in the XXI century. As a result, the customer can become the happy owner of timber-framing technologies already at home in six months. Price question - approximately ? 1.5 thousand per square meter It includes the foundation, bearing framework (the wooden frame of beams laminated veneer lumber, harvested and imported from Germany), glazing, insulation materials, interior finish, the device of the roof and engineering kommunikatsii.fahverk, at home in Germany

One nuance: the specialists who take up such an unusual construction, must be true professionals in their - any mistake, the slightest imbalance can lead to a skeleton deformation and destruction of the glass structure. And it you want?
Content tags: Wooden Houses frame house
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