Rule №1: accurately calculate the number and thickness of the insulating material
This is necessary not only to save budget, but also for a more effective process of thermal insulation. When counting is important to consider the type of building, climatic characteristics of the region, the specifics of the structural elements (roof, walls, attic, basement) and the overall energy efficiency of the room. Do not chase too tight insulation - an important reference should be their heat-shielding properties.
Related article: How to insulate an apartment
Rule №2: use insulation with low thermal conductivity
Thermal conductivity (Λ - «lambda") is in any building material. The index is less than it is, the better heat-saving properties of the material, which significantly saves energy consumption. The thickness of the insulation is related to the coefficient of thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of the output (R). It may vary depending on the climatic conditions of the region.
Rule №3: when choosing a heat insulating material, it is important to take into account the characteristics of each part of the house
On materials for thermal insulation of the foundation does not need saving. They should have a high mechanical strength. When selecting insulation for walls certainly consider the material used in their construction (brick, aerated concrete, wood). Important requirements for thermal insulation materials for the roof - high moisture resistance, resistance to temperature, fire safety and ease of installation. If you do not want to wrestle with different types of insulation, it is possible to prefer modern and universal stone wool. It is popular all over the world due to its practicality and effectiveness: stone wool layer 10 cm has the same insulating properties as wide, 2-meter brickwork or 45-inch wooden beam. It is successfully used throughout the world, and it is ideal for our climate.
Rule №4: carefully seal the gap wall
It is important not only to protect the house from the cold, but also to keep the warm air in it, which can easily and discreetly slip out of wall junctions, gaps between the window frame or door. Attend to unwanted sealing holes better before the cold weather. A simple way to test free access to air - on a windy day, hold a lit candle or a match along the suspicious joints. Noticeable movement of the flame is to demonstrate a problem.
Rule №5: neutralize thermal bridges
These include a variety of areas with low thermal resistance (in the rack frame houses, corner of the building, floor tiles), which reduce the effectiveness of insulation. To neutralize them you need to: accurately measure the gaps between the rafters; Determine optimum number of layers (at 200 mm sheet thickness is better to take two layers 100 mm or 150 mm and 50 mm than 4 layers of 50 mm); by cutting the insulation material required to post allowance (about 2 cm); Do not leave a heater remote places, evenly covering the whole surface; to lay the material from the bottom up for the most snug sheets, carefully carry out a vapor barrier, preventing damage and loose joints, for insulating joints between the wall and the rafter use the sealed materials.
Rule №6: competent, steam, increases the durability and effectiveness of the thermal protection
If in the intermediate floors of your home are no strong temperature fluctuations and your attic is securely insulated, then from the vapor barrier can be safely abandon using topcoat immediately after a heater. Steam insulation film is useful in an unheated attic and its linoleum, which badly misses steam and water. Without a vapor barrier hot humid air will form condensation inside the cover, which will lead to the accumulation of moisture, reduces thermal protection. With wooden floor attic vapor barrier conduct is strictly prohibited. Otherwise the warm air will cause condensation on the under-roof covering.
Rule №7: use quality glazing for windows
Experts believe that a large part (15%) of heat loss in a house falls on the window. It is best to save heat and thermal bridges will save from the window plastic profiles with three or five insulated cavities. For the climate middle band fit the profiles with a thickness of 70 mm and no less than a triple-pane windows. Some modern types of glass structures (for example, with low-emissivity glass with a silver-plated - «I-glass") can reflect heat in summer - from the street, and in winter - from the premises.
Rule №8: install automatic temperature control
With these useful inventions can save up to 30% energy. With their help, in each of the rooms of the house will maintain the desired temperature. If the house has aluminum radiators that heat up quickly and cool down, then adjust the temperature would be faster and easier. Programmable thermostats allow you to decrease or increase the temperature in the room during the day. For example, at night in the bedroom can become cooler, and in the morning - warm.
Rule №9: increase the efficiency of the ventilation system
Ventilate the room - a familiar and necessary procedure, from which it is difficult to give up, even in winter. However, together with the fresh air in the room gets cool, and most importantly, leaves precious heat. To reduce energy and teplozatraty recommended to improve the performance of the ventilation system. One of the effective ways - set heat exchanger (heat exchanger). The air will flow through it into the room not only clean, but hot. According to average estimates, the efficiency of the heat exchanger - about 80%. For example, if the street -15 C, and the room of + 23 C, then through a heat exchanger in the house air will arrive 12 C.
Rule №10: to protect the outer insulation from moisture and wind
Penetration into the insulation materials by wind and water significantly reduces the degree of thermal protection and durability of insulation. To avoid this, you need a special insulating panels obtyanut gidrovetrozaschitnoy, superdiffuzionnaya film (membrane). It is able to protect the facade from the weather and condensation. However, this membrane is perfectly passes steam coming from inside the house. Conduct insulation - both external and internal - in wet conditions should not be.