In energy efficiency and "green" technologies, Ukraine lags far behind other European countries, although certain positive trends are still emerging. For today in Ukraine, two objects are certified according to the BREEAM system - BC ASTARTA in Kiev and "Optima-plaza" in Lviv. Two more projects are certified LEED - the building of the US Embassy on the street. Sikorsky, 4 in Kiev (LEED Silver) and the office of Shell (LEED Gold). Representatives of Signature Management also announced their intention to certify the housing and office complex Signature in Pechersk, LCD has already received a preliminary assessment very good, in the process of certification is LCD A52.
For such a large country like Ukraine this is a very small indicator, but experts say that in the short term, BREEAM and LEED standards will become a trend in designing in commercial and residential real estate of high class.
Property Times discussed with professionals the prospects of "green" construction in Ukraine and learned what building materials are used in the implementation of such facilities.
Green organic materials
In the phrase "green" building materials are embedded several values, conditionally they can be divided into two large sub-groups: organic and energy-efficient.
There are two basic requirements for "green" organic materials. The first is that there must be recycled re-use materials. "At LEED headquarters, the floor is made of crushed concrete, a type of marble chips, and wood is also used there, which has been lying on the river bed for more than 100 years. It was raised, dried and used for finishing, "Yuri Gosudarin, chief engineer of the company" Arkhimatika "gives an example.
The second parameter is environmental friendliness. "Many manufacturers customize the term" green "for all materials made from natural," environmentally friendly "raw materials. But in the classical sense, "green" building materials are materials made from renewable natural (that is, organic) raw materials and, with "zero" or minimal, carbon dioxide emissions during their manufacture, "explains Vitaly Kozlov, chief architect of the Design Institute" Comfortbud. "
The most popular material that meets these criteria is wood, the range of its application is quite wide. "In Ukraine, it is used only in the construction of residential individual and low-rise apartment buildings or small commercial facilities," comments Vitaly Kozlov. "The same goes for other popular" green "materials - straw and cane, heaters from hemp, cellulose and cotton."
According to the expert, the problem of organic materials is that they are fire dangerous, which means that in the process of construction they must be chemically treated, which neutralizes the ecological compatibility. For example, the addition of cement to wood reduces the ecological properties of the final material, but at the same time increases the resistance to fire. "Very promising in this respect, the new material is arbolit - structural blocks of sawdust and cement. The use of cement has significantly increased the fire safety of the material and has expanded the possibilities of its application in civil mass construction, "Vitaly Kozlov comments.
To the "green" also include those materials that increase the energy efficiency of the building. "The main tasks of" green "construction are to reduce the overall (for the entire life cycle of the building) harmful effects on human health and the environment, reduce the load on regional energy networks, reduce the cost of maintaining new buildings," - says Alena Shevchuk, executive director, Association "Manufacturers of foam plastic".
At the same time, the environmental parameter is taken into account less, so it does not save on operation, explains Yuri State.
The range of materials for "green" energy-efficient construction is quite wide, their integrated application in conjunction with modern energy-saving technologies allow ready objects to pass certification on BREEAM and LEED.
The approach guided by the "green" certification is based on three components of sustainable development:
- economic (financial sustainability);
- ecological (ecosystem viability);
- social (people's welfare).
"These three factors can only be taken into account when considering projects in a comprehensive manner. The highest levels of energy efficiency of buildings are achieved through the correct application of complex measures, as well as the competent design and analysis of the entire life cycle of buildings, "- says Dmitry Ocheretyany, heating engineer, energy auditor, iC consulenten.
Reduction of heat losses
An important role in "green" construction is given to building insulation systems, which allow to reduce heat loss and improve the energy efficiency of facilities.
In multi-storey residential construction, two facade insulation technologies are currently used: a wet and ventilated facade. "Both options have their advantages, but at a price they differ. Ventilated - more expensive, while providing better air conduction. In general, this type of facade is used in business houses and elite class, "comments Evgeny Karpov, chief engineer of the LeapKids Academy of happiness project. - If we talk about heaters that meet the requirements for environmental friendliness and are actively used in domestic construction, I would single out mineral wool, which not only provides thermal insulation, but also free "breathing" of the walls. "
No less popular is expanded polystyrene, which according to BREEAM has the highest A + rating (absolute environmental safety).
Among the new developments of thermal insulation materials that can be used in "green" construction in the Ukrainian market, one can single out an innovation from BASF - polystyrene foam, which has graphite in it. "This approach allowed to increase the heat-insulating properties of the material on average to 20% in comparison with the thermal insulation based on the usual EPS insulation," comments Alena Shevchuk. "In Europe, this heat-insulating material was awarded the gold certificate GREENGUAR2".
In June 2017, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted the Law of Ukraine "On Energy Efficiency of Buildings". According to the law, the availability of an energy efficiency certificate will be one of the conditions for putting the newly constructed building into operation. This law will to some extent contribute to the development of "green" construction.
Another factor that will stimulate this trend in Ukraine is the opportunity to attract foreign investments for energy-efficient and "green" projects. International banks and venture funds are ready to invest in Eastern Europe, and one of the key conditions for this is the energy efficiency of the project.
Earlier it was reported about 5 amazing eco-houses in which I would like to live.