Qualitative state of nature and man-made environment significantly affects the value of a property. Matter how favorable ecological situation in the territory in which it is placed, for example, a house or office building is dependent magnitude of demand for these properties. Consequently, the value of these objects is in direct proportion to the level of air, noise and other pollution of the objects of natural and built environment. Unfortunately, folding in the Russian market prices on real estate transactions do not always reflect, and often do not reflect) the influence of environmental factors on these rates.
This situation is due to the prolonged economic crisis that is objectively determined the significant drop in the value of environmental benefits, as well as enough high ecological culture of contractors working on the real estate market. At the same time, real estate transactions, tend to have long-term. And it requires a professional appraiser of real estate adequately reflect the influence of environmental factors (both positive and negative) on property values. In this case, professional appraiser acts as a certain "repeater" of the distortion value of environmental benefits arising from the real estate market. In particular, it can realize the assessment of the impact of negative environmental factors on the property value by calculating the economic damage caused by a real estate object, using the values of costs (marginal) to prevent and redress the negative impact of environmental factors on the property.
Depending on the task in assessing the impact of environmental factors on the value of real estate on the scope and level of accuracy of the calculations are two possible approaches. The first focuses on a fairly deep and detailed study of all considered environmental and economic issues that require involvement of specialists in related disciplines (ecology, hydro-meteorology, specialists for corrosion protection and hygiene, etc.). The second approach is based on the possibility of using a professional appraiser of reference information, allowing him to carry out independent calculations to assess the impact of environmental factors on property values.
Environmental factors in the context of real estate appraisal - is a set of purely natural and natural-anthropogenic factors, not the means of labor, commodities and energy sources and raw materials, but have a direct impact on the effectiveness and usefulness of the property.
Depending on the scientific, technical and economic possibilities of purposeful changes in the characteristics of environmental factors can be classified as managed and unmanaged.
- A purity level of water consumed;
- Forested areas and a variety of green spaces;
- Mode of humidification, landslide hazard, etc.
Uncontrollable environmental factors:
- Soil type;
- Wind regime;
- Seismicity of the territory;
- Air pollution;
- Noise, radiation and other anthropogenic pollution, etc. The presented classification of environmental factors rather conditional and depends on the levels of scientific and technological progress and socio-economic development of a specific region. For example, to some extent, noise pollution in the aspect of residential and office buildings can be considered as a controllable environmental factor, since at present there are technical means of reducing the negative impact of noise on the inhabitants of this type of real estate: shumopogloschyayuschie windows, interior remodeling of the building to reduce direct exposure to noise, etc.
When evaluating real estate environmental factors must be considered as metainfrastrukturu that significantly affect the value (cost) of the property. The value of this metainfrastruktury expressed in value (cash) form, defines a set of environmental factors contribute to the cost of the property. The contribution of environmental metainfrastruktury in the price of the property can be positive or negative. In a market economy through the operation of the real estate market value of environmental metainfrastruktury adequately reflected in the structure of the property value.
There is an objective law of growth of value of environmental assets. At the same time as the growth level (quality) of life, from the law of marginal utility, there are rising demands from the buyer of the property not only in the traditional benefits of clean (no air pollution, noise, green zones), but also in receiving psychosocial environmental effect (the possibility of contemplation from the windows of your home or office landscape, direct contact with the natural environment, etc.). Of course, this kind of elite real estate listings have significant market value and fairly reflect the tendency of further growth.
To determine the value of the property, taking into account environmental factors need their expertise, which allows to specify the basic parameters of the qualitative state of the environment, the built environment of the object. The collection of environmental factors affecting the cost of the property, is analyzed from the perspective of both negative and positive effects. From the position of the negative impact of examination should be based on environmental analysis on the three main types of pollution: mechanical, chemical and physical. Examination of the negative environmental factors is carried out to identify the main parameters of the qualitative state of the environment, the built environment of the property appraised to determine its value, taking into account the effect of these factors.
Mechanical pollution - littering (eg, garbage) territory (land) property, have only driven a negative impact without the physicochemical effects. The standard unit of measurement of the mechanical contamination can be used densities cluttering: the ratio of the mass or volume of waste per unit area (t / ha, kg / m 2, etc.)
Electromagnetic pollution - changes the electromagnetic properties of the environment in which space is a property (from power lines, radio and television, industrial plants, etc.) can lead to local geographical anomalies and degradation in thin biological structures, which also applies people. This type of pollution is quite diverse system of measurements and therefore the environmental impact assessment is considered possible only a qualitative analysis of its characteristics is You can restrict a statement of his presence (or absence) and providing a list of major sources of power (eg, voltage level of high-voltage power lines, microwave power setting, etc.) in the considered zone of destruction: the property.
Radioactive contamination - the excess of natural levels of radiation substances in the environment where the object in real estate. The standard unit of measurement for this type of pollutant used hourly and averaged over the year levels of radiation (roentgen, etc.). Sources of radiation can be both external and internal in respect to this property. External - are objects such as nuclear power plants, industrial waste landfills, industrial and research companies, nuclear facilities, etc., of the radiative zone which covers the location of the object property Internal - it's dirty or unsafe radiation materials in buildings or structures of the object properties (using the secondary refractory bricks in the masonry walls. stoves, etc., formerly used for the lining of metallurgical furnaces, binders, extracted from the contaminated pits, etc.).
In the environmental assessment of real estate along with the inventory and analysis of the above negative effects of pollution of natural and built environment of the property determined by the characteristics and favorable (positive) environmental factors that are considered as positive environmental and psychosocial effects that significantly affect the market value of the property. For example, assuming that the property is situated in ecologically pure natural and built environment, the psycho-social environmental effects can be characterized by a number of positive environmental factors:
- Availability of natural landscape and the possibility of contemplation from the windows of the facility;
- High and efficient access to the inhabitants of the property to clean natural objects (park, pool, nature reserve, sanctuary, etc.);
- Diversity of green plants and their high ecological aesthetic in the placement of the property.
The variety of this type of environmental factors is not exhausted by the listing. System of measurement of these factors influencing the market value of the property is quite complicated, based on the subjective basis of their value. In this regard, during the environmental review of these factors can be limited to qualitative analysis, but the analyst must adequately disclose their qualitative characteristics.