Republic of Ukraine

Emblem of UkraineBackground:   

Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-LithuanianCommonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was able to bring about a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although final independence for Ukraine was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary elections and become prime minister in August of 2006. An early legislative election, brought on by a political crisis in the spring of 2007, saw Yuliya TYMOSHENKO, as head of an "Orange" coalition, installed as a new prime minister in December 2007.



Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east


Geographic coordinates:   

49 00 N, 32 00 E



total: 603,550 sq km

country comparison to the world: 52

land: 579,330 sq km

water: 24,220 sq km


Land boundaries:   

total: 4,566 km

border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 940 km, Poland 428 km, Romania (south) 176 km, Romania (southwest) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km



2,782 km


Maritime claims:   

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation



temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south



most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the CrimeanPeninsula in the extreme south


Elevation extremes:   

lowest point: Black Sea0 m

highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m


Natural resources:   

iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land


Land use:   

arable land: 53.8%

permanent crops: 1.5%

other: 44.7% (2005)


Irrigated land:   

22,080 sq km (2003)


Total renewable water resources:   

139.5 cu km (1997)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):   

total: 37.53 cu km/yr (12%/35%/52%)

per capita: 807 cu m/yr (2000)



45,700,395 (July 2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28 


Age structure:   

0-14 years: 13.8% (male 3,238,280/female 3,066,594)

15-64 years: 70.3% (male 15,399,488/female 16,742,612)

65 years and over: 15.9% (male 2,422,311/female 4,831,110) (2009 est.)


Median age:   

total: 39.5 years

male: 36.3 years

female: 42.7 years (2009 est.)


Population growth rate:   

-0.632% (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 231 


Birth rate:   

9.6 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203 


Death rate:   

15.81 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18 


Net migration rate:   

-0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 94 



urban population: 68% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: -0.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)


Sex ratio:   

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009 est.)


Infant mortality rate:   

total: 8.98 deaths/1,000 live births

country comparison to the world: 158

male: 11.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)


Life expectancy at birth:   

total population: 68.25 years

country comparison to the world: 150

male: 62.37 years

female: 74.5 years (2009 est.)


Total fertility rate:   

1.26 children born/woman (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 212 


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:   

1.6% (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40 


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:   

440,000 (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21 


HIV/AIDS - deaths:   

19,000 (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23 



noun: Ukrainian(s)

adjective: Ukrainian


Ethnic groups:   

Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 census)



Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 50.4%, Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 26.1%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 8%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 7.2%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Protestant 2.2%, Jewish 0.6%, other 3.2% (2006 est.)



Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%, other 9% (includes small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities)



GDP (purchasing power parity):   

$339.8 billion (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

$330.9 billion (2007 est.)

$306.6 billion (2006 est.)

note: data are in 2008 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):   

$179.7 billion (2008 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:   

2.7% (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

7.9% (2007 est.)

7.3% (2006 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):   

$7,400 (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 124

$7,100 (2007 est.)

$6,600 (2006 est.)

note: data are in 2008 US dollars


GDP - composition by sector:   

agriculture: 9.3%

industry: 31.7%

services: 58.9% (2008 est.)


Labor force:   

21.57 million (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29 


Labor force - by occupation:   

agriculture: 19.4%

industry: 24.2%

services: 56.4% (2005)


Unemployment rate:   

3% (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

2.3% (2007 est.)

note: officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers


Population below poverty line:   

37.7% (2003)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:   

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 25.7% (2006)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:   

31 (2006)

country comparison to the world: 107

29 (1999)


Investment (gross fixed):   

27.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37


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