All functional areas of the site and facilities should be linked in a well-designed road network. Not all tracks need to be straight (except for the pound between the garden beds). Usually on the plot rows ¬ Yat main road width 2,25-2,5 m and a track width of 0,75-1,5 m. Their construction consists of a base, cover, borders and waterways, which are satisfied with the sides at a distance of 40 - 50 cm from the road and 15-30 cm away from the tracks in the form of neshi ¬ rokih ditches and chutes.
Fig. Types of coatings garden paths:
1. Formwork for concrete slabs: a - transom, b - longitudinal bar in - a groove for fixing the bars, d - nog E - Bracket, e - the bottom casing of sheet iron 2. Tiling: a - a concrete slab 50x50 cm, b - rammed sand layer of 10-12 cm 3. Types of plates fabricated in the same mold: a - a square, b - trapezoid in - rectangular 4. Slit trenches for the track: a compacted soil (topsoil removed), 5. The simplest type of coverage from the slag: a - rammed earth, b - large slag, a - a mixture of fine sand, slag, 6. Coverage of construction waste: a - rammed earth, b - base (brick fight, pebbles, rubble), in - rich clay layer 1 -2 cm, r - construction bran (slag with coarse sand, minor dolomite, crushed brick, granite bran, etc.) 7. Coverage of bricks: a rammed earth, b - coarse sand, - a brick at the edge of - brick flat; 8-9. Types of paving brick, 10. Solid concrete floor with a jointer (with the subsequent filling of topsoil and planting grass): a - side board 180x30 mm, b - pegs to the - rail 20x80 mm, d - sand, g - soil compaction, e - concrete layer 8 cm , x - rammed earth with a layer of gravel 10smz - topsoil.
The ground track is appropriately treated soil. The device tracks begin with the removal of vegetative soil layer about 15 cm and filling the resulting "trough" porous material (slag, broken brick rubble, gravel and sand) at 10 cm with prolivkoi water and tamper. If it's sand, it is sufficient to align and compact. For other soils do training base.
By digging a ditch marking landmarks given width as the trough depth of 15-30 cm (for the track depth can be 10-15 cm). This 8-10-centimeter layer of coarse gravel is laid, or gravel, then more shallow the same material layer 5-7 cm, and poured on top of 2-5-centimeter layer of sand ¬ rovy: after each operation carefully laying rams.
The upper layer can be built of brick, stone or concrete slabs of various sizes (from 20x40 up to 60x60 cm, thickness 3-6 cm). Need to make it slightly hooked - to drain the water - and lay on a prearranged leveling layer of concrete (composition - 1:1:10 cement grade 400, clay or fine gravel, sand). The top layer should rise above the ground at 3-5 cm
Paving, outdoor terraces, porches, arbors, porches can be patterned, with the inclusion of tiles, fragments of stone and even marble (breccia), large stones, red brick, iron ore, concrete slabs, but in all cases it must have a rough surface to does not become slippery in the rain or ice-covered ground (Fig. 19).
To the track did not stand water, cover should be 2-3% (2-3 cm at 1 m) slope from center to edge, and when the terrain conditions do not permit streams on both sides of the track, costing a bias in one direction.
Sidewalks are doing in general as well as expensive, but the most cheap and available materials. As a coating using paving slabs, gravel, brick battle and other construction waste. Since the trough for them is much smaller than that for roads, and layers of foundation will be correspondingly thinner.
Paths of red brick
Paths of brick on the farm and garden site are beautiful, durable and practical. Red bricks - iron ore (burned brick, "polovnyak") is placed on pre-made base on the selected picture flat or on edge. Work are as follows. First, the prepared clay trough fall asleep and align the 10-cm layer of sand, giving the profile of convex shape, then sand is moistened and then placed the bricks. Along the edges of the track can be fitted with a border of bricks placed on edge, upright or at an angle. Stacked brick coating must be thoroughly compacted wooden bars, and before you use plenty of water the water.
Paths of natural stone
Based on a sandy track, organize, and coated with natural stone. Made of rubble, ashlar stone or crushed gravel, they are durable and can be quite decorative. Burying the sandy base under the cover of the flat (postelistyh) stones typically 5-10 cm stones small and medium-sized stack, so that they are firmly adhered to each other, and stones larger sizes - at intervals of 5-8 cm intervals poured soil and seeded with grass. Quarry stone is laid on the ground, which is determined by the penetration of the Naib ¬ of larger stones. Gaps between them filled with small ashlar with gaps of 2-3 cm and is filled with a solution. Grouting performed flush with the surface or convex.
If the path of a flat natural stone will be used for the passage of vehicles, it should be spread on the concrete base. Make it so. In the prepared clay trough depth of 20-30 cm poured rubble stone, gravel, crushed stone layer of 10-15 cm, moistened with water and rams, poured concrete (5-10 cm), re-rams and level the surface. On this ground on the cement mortar are laying the stones, the intervals between them is filled with a solution and embroider, making sure that the solution was flush with or above the stones (except frozen winter in the recesses moisture can cause cracks). The thickness of the horizontal and vertical joints should be 2-3 cm
Track of the standard concrete slabs
Coverage of the standard concrete blocks is carried out on a sandy foundation of thickness 10-12 - see the plates are placed close to each other, with gaps that fall asleep with soil and seeded with grass, or, if a track is only for pedestrian traffic, vrazbezhku - given the length of the pitch man . The front surface plates must rise above ground level at 3-4 cm, as time track multiple sags.
Concrete slab is easy to make and their own. Plates can be any shape, but their sizes are recommended as follows: thickness of 5-10 cm, the maximum length of 50 cm production technology is very simple: the horizontal base of the sheet metal, plywood or hardboard install formwork, fill it with concrete, give weight to congeal, after which formwork is removed.
The easiest way to make the formwork square or rectangular cross-section of the wooden bars of 50x50 mm. For this purpose, the longitudinal bars in the right distance from each other groove depth of 10-15 mm, to insert the cross bars. Angles cramp from strips of iron. Between the side faces of the bar and clamp drive a wooden wedges, making sure that the design has not lost a specified form.
Suitable for formwork and other materials. For example, applying the flatiron, it gives a variety of shapes - round, oval, polygonal or imitating the bizarre forms of natural stone.
Front surface plates can be decorated with pebbles, stone battle, thick shards of colored glass, ceramic tiles. To do this on a sheet of heavy paper with a water-soluble glue stick face fine inclusion of the selected pattern, from top to establish the form and pour concrete, and when it hardens, wash off the paper. Front surface plates can be given a corrugated texture, making the substrate of corrugated sheet metal, arranged in any pattern thick wire, rod, or wooden slats. Typically, in order to increase the strength and durability of plates, their surface is treated with dry cement - iron, and the inside of the mass lay crossed and wired rods.
Two-track path of reinforced concrete
Two-track path of reinforced concrete for the passage of the car are doing so. Mark out two parallel paths 60 cm wide, digging trenches 40-60 cm deep, poured 30-50-centimeter layer of stone or gravel on the edges of the base install formwork of edging boards so that their upper edges were above ground at 5-6 cm formwork align with the cord at the junction of boards in the ground to pierce the pegs. On the inside formwork reinforcing rubble, with exterior - a ground. Then, inside the concrete is poured, and when the mass has hardened, the edges of the tracks suit compactor curb width of 30-50 cm, which is sprinkled with sand, crushed brick, shingle or grass.
Footpaths coated monolithic concrete 7-8 cm thick gravel operates on the basis of a thickness of 8-10 cm, located in a groove depth of 12 - 15 cm Their surface is decorated as well as concrete slabs, or embroidered with a stone.
Track of the end sections of the tree
Ornamental garden paths of the end sections of the tree, especially if large dice alternate with those of several closely matched medium and small cuts. Wood sections of large and medium diameter of 10-20 cm in height installed on the sand base thickness of 8-10 cm, arranged in a well depth of 15-25 cm slices of small-diameter simply hammered into the soil to a depth of 20-30 cm, but that the top of the cut was above Ground 4 - 6 cm track will be much longer if all underground wooden parts antiseptirovat, prosmolit or even charred.
Track from tsementogrunta and gruntoasfalta
Entrance to the garage and a platform for the car needs to be done on the proper preparation - for example, gravel with concrete shed. To prevent cracks should be about a meter to arrange clearance. But it is better to build a staircase with a slope of 3-5 ° of the prefabricated concrete slabs (suitable and standard six-meter normal floors, voids are filled with sand).
Coverage of roads and tracks from tsementogrunta and gruntoasfalta perform layer 4-6 cm at the base of sand, gravel, concrete, compacted soil. It should be noted that after laying tsementogrunt requires enhanced compaction, and as a result of such operations, he factor in half sags, this should be taken into account in advance with the device casing and packing the mixture on the bottom. With gruntoasfaltom somewhat simpler: its hot mass is placed on the prepared base and carefully leveled planed boards.
With the development of the site is often a need in the device permanent and temporary sites for various purposes, depending on which type is selected and the design of their compensation. But in any case it is necessary to ensure good drainage from the site, which should be well planned in height.
Vertical planning area includes the device ramps. If the site is adjacent to the building, its divided into three slope, directing water flow from the structure, isolated as the site is divided into four slope, having the longest one of them in the direction of decreasing elevation. Slope of ramps should be 1-3%, ie, the height shall be reduced by 1-3 cm per meter of length.
Layout of the site operates on the beacons, which are mainly using the same wooden pegs hammered into the ground at equal distances from each other. The length of the peg is determined by the thickness of the base and cover, plus 15-20 cm burial in the ground.
After marking the site boundary with the surface vegetation is removed soil and scoring zero lighthouse. Usually it is a peg located at the highest point of intersection of rays. After 1 - 2 m along the edges slope slaughtered the remaining pegs and, if necessary - and intermediate beacons in the middle of the slope. Beacons to bring up the notch. For this zero-peg set in the project situation. On him and the first peg is placed a wooden rail and by carpenters level lead to a horizontal position. So do with other beacons.
Aligned beacons start a vertical layout, making the subsequent zero from a beacon pegs mark the thickness of the base and cover. For example, if the pegs hammered in 1,5 m and the slope is 1%, then from the top of the first zero from a beacon of pegs lay down 1.5 cm and a thickness of cover note and the base. This can be done using water-filled rubber tubing with glass-tipped, using the principle of communicating vessels.
Paving sites with concrete slabs
The technology works on the device base and cover areas as a whole is the same as that of a device of roads and tracks, so we consider just one example of paving sites with concrete slabs. This is done by sand or gravel base, putting the slabs from the top of the site. If the ground is sandy, boards have the neat rows with a minimal seams (0,5-0,7 cm), inciting their wooden or rubber mallet or hammer through the usual wooden shim. On macadam base plate is placed on the solution (2-3 cm) intervals between 1-1,5 cm Evenness test welds on the cord stretched between two pegs, and coverage in general - with the help of a two-meter rack, the gap between that and the plates should not be greater than 1 cm
After the paving area watered and, if necessary, close the burlap or sawdust, protecting it from overheating by solar rays, and 3-4 h joints filled with mortar. Along the site satisfied with drainage grooves (concrete, clay) or broad (30-40 cm) edges of the compacted soil.
Borders play and decorative, and purely functional role - beat off the edge of sidewalks, playgrounds, flower gardens, helping take the water. Borders operates from the monolithic and reinforced concrete, brick, natural stone and wood.
Concrete curbs can be given a complex curved shape with reinforced scored in the ground with stakes shuttering of planed boards, plywood and sheet metal. Concrete poured moistened and kept in the formwork 7-10 days, protected from sunlight. The height of the curb on the soil surface is usually about 10 cm, and penetration - 10-15 cm
Much easier to make a border of natural stone. In sandy soils stones set at the correct depth and covered them with soil and rams, the dampening water in the other soils need sand or concrete base.
For wood edging is used score in the soil treated against rot checkers, dice podtovarnika (logs with a diameter 11.8 cm), the upper edges of which do inclined to them did not stand water.
Cuvette bridge - a kind of continuation of the road, but outside the area. Such a bridge across the street ditch made of wood, concrete slabs, reinforced concrete. In-site bridge the ditch slopes strengthen fascines, brick or masonry, monolithic concrete.
Distinguish pedestrian and road bridges cuvette. Pedestrian bridges are made of a board width of 12-15 cm, 4 cm thick, reinforced at the ends of came down on podtovarnika. Motor is made from logs with a diameter of 30 cm decking are sawn in half logs laid across the bridge to carry logs. Upper deck pressed logs, which are the same as the carrier, cut in a slant score stakes of logs. All the wooden parts of the bridges antiseptic. Instead cuvette bridge can be arranged so-called relocation. To do this at the bottom of the cuvette, following his inclination, put concrete pipes, covered it with soil, carefully ramming. On top of a sandy foundation pave a path.
The slopes of the embankment obkladyvayut turf, stone concrete tiles, natural stone. If the area has a fairly significant deviation, it must be broken into separate terrace height. Can turn out very attractive composition of the site and buildings. In the field gradients, where the terrain slope exceeds 10-15 ° (ie, 1 m of height increases by 10-15 cm), should build an open staircase (sometimes just a step from 3-5). Decorated with beautiful stonework, plants, and thoughtful coverage of stairs becomes an important element of landscape architecture.