Today the attention of prospective homeowners are plenty of projects for optimal and rational homes - they are devoted to dozens of specialized directories (Russian and foreign), as well as related Internet resources. It would seem that there is no shortage of proposals. But sometimes, reviewing a mountain of materials, a potential homeowner can not find anything suitable. With this release, "NAM" offers readers a workshop of rational design and construction of villas. In the next issue of its catalog rationalization proposals in this regard will make the representatives of construction companies.
Potential owner cottages, on the occasion of acquiring lumber at a discount to the nearest base of building materials such as the customer is not too interesting designers. On "high architecture" with him to talk. The result in "rational houses" respected directories we can find projects that the future of summer resident can not be classified as a rational.
The classic example: we all know that in Russia at any Stroybaza available standard six-meter beam length. A "catalog" building design, positioned as rational, may be based on, for example, log 7.4 x 6, 8 m ... This means that the standard timber for this building is no longer suitable. Most likely, the person who purchased such a project with the hope of building their home quickly, inexpensively and without hassle, it will alter. As a result of alteration of "go" plan, stairs and window openings will not in their places. There are many subtleties and nuances, which broke the idea of rational design and construction.
Another example. Dachevladelets bought at high prices do not beam - "Top Ten", folded log cabin as their neighbors, but low-quality material "led": within the walls of the gap appeared. As a result, the owner decides (again on an "as their neighbors") to strengthen the foundation and to impose a house brick. Such a (not too, by the way, cheap) upgrade only partially solves the problem: in the gaps between the bricks and beams are still the wind howled, is accumulated dampness. With regard to fire safety - then the problem is not solved: these houses are burning like a good muffle furnace. By the way, are often brought to see in our housing estates at home, on top of a brick lined foam and siding ... On what rational approach, there can there be?
What is a familiar to us all since the days of mass movement of gardening problem? In most cases, this framework the "six by six" of the logs or timber, two-or three-meter stem framing annexe (veranda), the classic gable or "polygon" roof (the latter option is less aesthetic, but it can get a full room on the second floor ). This "shelter Gardener" - the same classics as Lada-"penny". Perhaps it is time to tailor the optimal living space for other templates? .. After all, the platform of the "six to nine (on such foundations in most cases are built democratic problem) - beneficial material for the designer.
There are very attractive and ergonomic options for frame houses, estimates that the construction does not exceed the above-described "classic." On them will be discussed. But for a start try to derive a rational formula for suburban homes.
Formula problem: the frame house with a loft
Frame technology is only partially allow to destroy the classic stereotype of 6x9, because the joists are also commonly used by six meters. Meanwhile, when it comes to building a cottage, "skeleton" has significant advantages over all other methods of construction. Here are just some of them:
* Frame house is cheaper than the exact same, but from a bar or, especially, of bricks;
* Well-insulated house well "keeps the" heat;
* This house does not need an expensive solid foundation;
* Frame technology offers great choice of planning solutions and materials for the exterior and interior;
* In the presence of construction experience, teaching aids, a qualified consultant and a few assistants, framed cottage can build their own, expensive construction technique is also not needed.
Thus, we define the technology, discuss the problem of height. Finns are often reluctant to second-floor loft in favor of the height of 1,6 m, which puts guest beds - such area, as opposed to full residential floors at the northern neighbors are not taxed. In Russia, such a "petty" is not justified. The optimal solution for our developers - guestbook and shopping area on the ground floor and private (the owner's) - in the attic.
Convenient placement of rooms
* No need for stairs
* Comfortable for elderly people
* Large built-up area
* A large area of the basement
* Limited view from the windows
* A large area of corridors and ancillary rooms
* Management of the site
* Ability to use the entire building volume of space under roof
* An excellent view from the second floor
* More opportunities for zoning areas
* Inconvenience for the elderly
* The need for rational use of the area under the stairs
A two-storey house with a plinth
* Availability of space for a storeroom
* The possibility of building in a complex terrain area
* Functional land use
* Complexity and high cost of construction
* Not comfortable (in terms of ventilation and lighting) room in the basement
Terms of tasks: zonation for the three
Before proceeding to the selection of projects, made a mental tour of the best from our point of view villa. Thus, it is proposed to build a cottage for the holiday season, winter weekends and reception for family of three or four people of different generations. This house needs to quickly warm up, keep warm and easy to preserve for the winter. When you select a planning decision should take into account the interests of all family members. If we are talking about liquidity management house, then he should please not only you but also (case it is necessary to sell) the possible buyers - the average family.
Housing starts in the hallway. At the entrance vestibule shall be provided to equalize the temperature between the indoor and outdoor. There should be a place where you can remove and hang coats. There is no reason to make the hall is too large. But she certainly should have natural light, such as the door with a glass element, skylight or a window facade. Premises without access of light from the street people are uniquely perceived as uncomfortable and even dangerous. But the planning decision, when the door is opened from the outside look just finds a window can be considered ideal, but, alas, this is not always easily achievable.
A total area of a kitchen, living room and dining room. Depending on the preferences of owners of the house, all of these areas can be separated. However, today there is no urgent need to "hide" the kitchen from the prying eyes: its design can be proud owners, and modern ventilation systems can easily cope with obsessive culinary aromas. Advantages of space, not raskroennogo partitions - the possibility of transformation of space and freedom in the arrangement of furniture, a sense of volume and space. On the ground floor should provide a small bedroom. It can be reasonably mature family members or guests. Not far from the bedroom should be located bathroom.
Go to the second floor. Stairs can be installed in a separate room or be part of the interior common area. The latter option is preferable to lay the psychological point of view. Many, probably a familiar feeling of anxiety that occurs sometimes in two-storey houses with rendered outside the living area stairs: any noises below or above your head make people flinch and listen. Living room should be reported directly to the second floor: it will also provide psychological comfort and create a sense of control over the entire space at home. And, of course, be nice to do the staircase skylight, which is always appropriate to provide natural lighting and provide an opportunity to navigate without the aid of electricity.
On the second floor, in a private master zone, located the room, the main purpose of which - the bedroom. Large - can be used as the primary. Others, depending on the situation - as a child, or cabinet.
A small hall that connects the second floor, is absolutely justified, even for a budget at home. However, if there is a possibility, there is better to provide a spacious common area. It can accommodate a family room. Modern technologies make it possible to organize a loft building here and a real winter garden, but we should not forget that we are talking about giving, not the home for permanent residence. And in any case, you should remember one great advantage of the second floor before the first - from the windows of the second floor of your home more beautiful open views.
Light, volume and type of
It is impossible to give a definite recipe cozy home. It consists of many important things, such as natural lighting, ventilation, planning volume, types of windows. The task of the architect - to create from these elements a comfortable living environment. However, first things first.
Natural lighting. SNiPs requirements (they are marked minimum allowable settings) states that the use of vertical windows, glazing area should be 1 / 8 of the floor area, that is to cover 8 square. m requires 1 square. m of glazing (a window assembly area 1.3 square meters. m). If you use skylights, this ratio is equal to 1 / 10. However, a lot of light does not happen: the larger the area of windows, so bright and cozy room. In addition, natural light should be uniform (no dark nooks and corners) and "interesting" (glare reflected from various surfaces, creating a unique play of light and the architect must get them to "work" on a single scenario). Should take into account the time and insolation: in areas where household spend most of the day, is not recommended to have all the windows in the same plane. After all, as we know, the window - this mat for the finished painting. And the sun, making its daily route from East to West, will create a play of light and shadows, which will be envied even qualified theatrical director.
Large windows provide a link with the outside world. This is especially important for our latitudes, where winter lasts for sometimes 6-8 months. This trend was reflected in contemporary Western projects, such as in Scandinavia, and in some works of Russian architects.
Ventilation and the microclimate. Warmth and fresh air in the house today are increasingly provided with "smart" engineering equipment. Meanwhile, artificial systems are good only where there is no natural. Earlier generations of homeowners did not know how to manage electronic home climate. And today illiterate plan window, then to create a comfortable air environment, using air conditioners, forced exhaust sensors and processors - not the most rational solution for the owner of the house sound in the bosom of nature.
To ensure the heat box should be located, taking into account the orientation of the buildings around the world: that is the largest area of glazing oriented to the south. Summer to help cope with overheating Sunglasses Accessories: blinds, curtains or a more efficient external devices - shutters and voile. Latest from the physical point of view more effective. These accessories are for the vertical and dormer windows. Windows above the staircase in two-level spaces - a real find for the organization of the natural supply and exhaust ventilation.
Volume of the room. It is also one of the essential elements of comfort. The examples are not far to seek: the majority would prefer an apartment in the "Stalinist" house of shelter in the hruschobe "only because of the high ceilings. On the first floor, living room, you can achieve the desired effect, combining two levels of the house and placing it over the skylight. On the second floor, where a penthouse, everything is more complicated. In particular, we should not by all means seek a premise familiar cubic form due to high pristenkov and minor bevels: in this case a trapezoid, which is visually "eats up" space. Precisely in order to get away from this is not too raduyuschego eye level, gardeners at the time "invented" maloestetichnuyu sloping ceilings. In practice, if the roof pitch is 450, the bevel may well begin at a height of 80-90 cm from the floor - this is enough to supply upholstered furniture, desk, plumbing appliances. Significantly increases the volume of attic space compared to a conventional file ceiling "on horse".
Now it's time to apply to the project, to note how the architects propose to implement the principles outlined above in a small suburban house.
The "Russian Caravan 1 - frame house with a step load-bearing structures 600 mm, intended for construction in a lightweight foundation of 6x9 m. The favorable difference between this project from the" classic villa "- flat roofs, gable oriented along the long side. Such a construction would not be too appropriate for a log or square log house. Frame technology makes it an untypical solution feasible and easily implementable. Bevels of roof space begins at a height of 1.2 m, which allows you to put them comfortable bedrooms. Ladder is placed under the highest part of the house, and above it is possible to arrange a dormer window.
On the other hand, in terms of "NAM", this project is giving a serious drawback: for the home, which is a considerable time unoccupied, large glassed-plane - not the best solution. Cottage - a place where most of the time she wanted to spend outdoors in the fresh air. Therefore, we suggested to the author to upgrade the project so that it became more "exterior", and verandas can be transformed into open-air terraces. Thus was born the project "Russian Caravan 2. If the house built for this project are to be used as a cottage, the veranda can be no glazing. The layout of the house allows for the location, even on narrow sections of six hundred parts. "Raisin" project - the high and spacious attic room, which can be used not only as bedrooms, but also, for example, to become shop or office with spectacular views from the windows.