Wood is the most popular building material is used during the construction of various facilities. Meanwhile, it has certain features that are sure to be taken into account during the construction of wooden houses.
As a building material wood is used for a long time and is quite productive, but there is this material characteristics, which will certainly need to consider when building a wooden house.
Wood - the material is porous and therefore actively absorbs moisture, and wet wood, firstly, greatly reduces their strength characteristics, and secondly, it becomes a favorable environment for the development of different types of fungi and molds that are actively destroying it. In addition, the wood attracts all living creatures (especially insect), ages under the influence of sunlight, is deformed due to various reasons, gives the crack, and besides, still have congenital malformations, such as knots. Experts say that finding the timber can not be without flaws, though the tree is indispensable in the construction of country houses: the merits of his very much, and with disabilities have long learned to cope.
Experience of generations of modern science helped to create an effective system for protection of wood against the strain, cracking, biological damage and inflammation. Today, experts developed a set of measures to protect the wood, which prolongs the life of wood products and structures, prevents them from rotting, gives them strength and resistance to environmental influences.
The enemy is a small but ruthless
Like all organic material, wood is highly vulnerable to infection fungi and larvae of pests that destroy it. Although the changes under the influence of these organisms are usually very slow, relaxing is not worth it.
Specialists warn: if you do not take timely protective measures, rampant tree pests and fungi can unexpectedly rapidly reduce the carrying capacity of wooden construction, affect the appearance of a structure or even cause some trouble.
To make it easier to deal with insects, scientists classify them. There are three groups of dangerous wood insects. Some hit the damp wood, while others - the dry, the third - contaminated or rotten. For the construction of the most dangerous representatives of the first two groups. Fighting with them primarily by chemical means, which timber is sprayed, smeared or impregnated with toxic substances that kill insects and their larvae. With the same purpose can be carried out pollination powders or fumigating gases. It uses the oily and organikorastvorimye antiseptics, insecticides special - trichlorfon, powder and paste DDT dusts, as well as some gas (chloropicrin).
No less ruthless struggle is with wood mushrooms, which are recognized pathogens of rotting wood. Contamination of wood fungi in two ways: fungal spores, which under favorable temperature and humidity on the germinating timber, or in contact healthy and rotten wood, on the surface of which is the living mycelium. It is therefore strictly prohibited to keep a healthy timber next to the rotting.
Wood-destroying fungi actively growing in the moisture content of wood from 20 to 70%, therefore the main tool in the fight against rotting wood must be to maintain its moisture content no higher than 18%. This is achieved primarily constructive in ways that protect the wood from dirt, operational or atmospheric moisture. For example, the bearing wood construction make public that they are well ventilated, and were available for inspection, and for a good dry bearing and protecting designs suit lofts. There are many ways, but to enumerate them does not make sense, because in each case the decision is made depending on the soil moisture content, wood species, local climatic conditions, etc.
One way to reduce the risk of rotting wood with a simultaneous increase in its strength is drying - natural and artificial. Note that natural drying is widely used by our ancestors. Wood is dried in the open air, under canopies or indoors. To achieve the desired material moisture takes time, sometimes several months, with the risk of fungi is reduced, but not eliminated completely. Artificial drying, in particular chamber, provides a greater biological stability of the wood, and the drying just a few days or even hours.
Reliably protect the wood only by drying and constructive ways, as a rule, you can not. In a wooden house has vulnerabilities that need special attention: basements, cellars, floor joists, rough sex, the lower crowns log, etc. The elements are located close to the ground or in contact with it, necessarily subjected to chemical processing, and here come to help antiseptics.
There are water-soluble antiseptics, and insoluble in water - oily. The first used only in dry conditions, mainly in the premises. The latter are used to antiseptirovaniya sleepers, poles, piles, etc. Oily antiseptics for treatment within the premises are not suitable because they are toxic. Typical representatives of oily preservatives are creosote and anthracene oils, water-soluble - fluoride and sodium fluorosilicate. There is also an antiseptic solvent-based and combined.
The easiest way to protect your finished design or house under construction - to its surface water treatment antiseptic solutions using sprayers, spray guns and brushes. Particular attention is given to elements that have high humidity and prone to decay. However, since the antiseptic oils, only the upper layers of wood, often used other methods that provide more in-depth protection. There is a method of embedding - timber can withstand a certain time in hot or cold water baths with antiseptic solution. Produce and processed under pressure in autoclaves, which resulted in the composition penetrates into the wood more deeply.
Do not forget to mention the long-known method of surface protection of wooden structures and provide waterproofing. This is the usual color and imposition of a protective layer for use of paint formulations for special purposes, the facade of enamel and water-repellent coating. On the market today presents a lot of decorative coatings for facades, but the most accessible and popular is the paint. Diverse and antiseptic compounds. Some are sold in dry form and diluted with water before eating, others - are ready. There are preservatives produced in Russia, is foreign - the choice is big.
There is safety in numbers
Specialists are divided constructions into four groups and each gives advice on protective treatment.
In the area of special focus is on designs that "work" under conditions of constant humidity: wooden base facilities are located in the ground, but above variable groundwater level, as well as structural elements of walls, floors, ceilings, located in the vicinity of the earth, under the influence its moisture.
For them, recommended for deep soaking and processing of oily preservatives. When using water-soluble antiseptic treatment is necessary element of waterproofing protection.
The second group - a design that operated in conditions of constant washing action of water: wood foundation structures (pile), protective-walling, etc. He showed a deep soaking oily and other trudnovymyvaemymi compositions.
The third group - design, experience periodic wetting, ie seasonal changes in temperature and humidity conditions. This ends of wooden beams, the lower rims of log and square log buildings, logs, decking flooring. In this case, you should use designs that will eliminate the constant wetting of building elements. It is also recommended treatment of parts of designs with water soluble preservatives with a high content of protective medicine, the application of waterproofing linings.
And the last group - design, subject to time duration moisture, which creates the risk of fungal lesions in the wood during the first two or three years after the construction of the facility. It's walls, ceilings, partitions. Protect them with a surface impregnation of water-soluble antiseptic, which prevents decay for a time sufficient for complete drying.
Specialists also note that to ensure the necessary level of protection for modern wooden buildings (especially the load-bearing elements) of biological and atmospheric effects must use a combination of methods, since none of these methods alone with this problem can not cope. In addition, there is another very important task - ensuring fire safety of the structure of the tree.
As protection against bioporazheny, this problem is solved by structural and chemical methods in the complex. The design of building structures are facing insulating materials, heat-reflecting device screens, an increase in cross-sectional design, the choice of wood and wood materials for the fasteners, etc.
By chemical means of fire protection - fire retardant treatment of wood, that is, substances that reduce the flammability of materials of organic origin. These include special varnishes, paints and enamel, forming a flame retardant layer and simultaneously ennobling surface of the wood, various pasty compositions, as well as impregnation. Wood impregnated with fire retardant or in specialized shops - in the hot and cold baths under pressure, either on site - by drawing on the surface of the flame retardants and coatings.
Specialists emphasize that we must first take care of the protection of roof and roofing systems as a "backbone" of the house and its reliability depends on the strength of the entire structure.
Roof - the most fire hazardous part of the building, moreover, it operates in very harsh conditions - at a constant temperature and humidity. In this roofing system, as well as the truss, must necessarily be treated and fire retardant, and antiseptics.
In the preparation of material used data from the Association of Wood Housing and the Moscow State Construction University