It is hard to imagine a country inhabited area without at least a small greenhouse. Even if the owner of a large mansion in the countryside do not want to see around him nothing but green grass, broken only by the blue of the artificial pond, his wife (daughter, mother, aunt) will want to make in this tranquil landscape a few bright touches in the form of flower beds, rose garden, and even better - winter garden.
And many of the mansion with stone walls (not to have seen the neighbors) huddles with his small parnichok and dill pickles. Well, do not buy green, smelly and a health advice, as has just been torn on their land in any market in any expensive hypermarket!
Greenhouses and conservatories are absolutely essential in our region, with its challenging climate. It would seem that the construction of "warm corner of the plant," a primitive: a solid frame so transparent film or glass, and planted a rose even though varietal tomatoes. However, in such a simple object, you must first understand. Which material is preferred for the frame, and which for the translucent component, which will be in a greenhouse or conservatory, which he should be the size and how much fun it will cost.
Location on site
Greenhouse should be placed on a flat, well-illuminated place, not in a valley and on the slope to the construction of ground water does not heat a little, but not stagnated around the cold air.
Greenhouses can be both freestanding and built onto the house or other building. In this case, they have the southern wall, and roof make pent. At the junction with the greenhouse to the house wall should have an outer waterproof.
Still need to think about that far from the greenhouses was always water for irrigation, so as not to run around with buckets to distant lands. And if it is assumed that the greenhouse or conservatory is also heated, should be near electricity or gas. In the latter case it is a permanent building, designed for year-round operation. And here is useful to heed the advice of experts.
In "Art Brownie" is recommended primarily to assess objectively the situation in your area. That is, consider what a construction site soil, what will be the foundation of how strong the wall at the site of landfall conservatory (winter garden, hospital greenhouses), etc. Of course, you need to decide for what purpose built garden: it is a greenhouse for growing vegetables or the living room, decorated with evergreens. No need to forget about the different paths of the sun at different times of the year. Must take into account the presence or absence of natural shade of a winter garden (trees, buildings, etc.)
If you install the conservatory on the north side of the house, it is most of the time will be in the shadow of the building. In essence, this means that the device ventilation and shading may not be necessary (it is always necessary to approach to the calculation of these factors individually.) This winter garden will serve as a buffer zone to compensate for the difference in temperature between the environment and home.
If the winter garden to attach to the southern side of the house, it will at all times during the day exposed to solar radiation. Therefore, in this embodiment is essential to provide the elements of shading and ventilation, and consider elements of the glass structure.
If the winter garden on the west side to arrange the house, then most likely the sun's rays will fall into the design at sunset or in the afternoon, which will create, on the one hand, the romantic atmosphere of the room, on the other - will need to consider the elements shading. In principle, the winter sun will be low on the horizon, and direct sunlight into the garden will get a little. But as the sunset is a direct hit to the rays, the sun protection is not to be redundant.
If the conservatory will be located on the eastern side of the house, then it will fall is likely to diffuse solar radiation. That is, after the rising of the sun moves out of the house, which creates a shadow over the garden area, enters the room, and only the scattered light. Of course, any tips or individual, in each case requires an expert examination of the area, but, according to the company, "Browne Art", the most comfortable solution is usually a device of a winter garden on the east side of the house. There must also be taken into account the factor that in the morning air is still so much time to warm up to the condition of direct solar radiation strongly influence the indoor climate. This option is more favorable not only for the device flower greenhouses, and plant growth, we must not forget about the drainage of condensate.
For long-term operation
Year-round greenhouse, conservatory should be based on a foundation, usually tape. The design is performed, usually made of metal profiles, and as a transparent fill used silicate glass, acrylic or polycarbonate. Depending on the size and shape of the stationary greenhouse roof structure may include even rely on the rafters and located within an additional rack. It is also necessary to provide a drain to the base does not get slightly wet during the rains and melting snow. On both ends of the greenhouse are doing door (hinged or sliding), so it can be aired. For this purpose, make a few opening frame on the roof or wall.
Since we are talking about the greenhouses year-round use, it should be remembered and how to withstand significant snow loads. This taught us the previous snow of winter, when temperature changes with high humidity in some areas of the Leningrad Region have threatened greenhouses in the form of snow caps. Pressure packed snow on the arc and translucent materials has exceeded the critical value of load capacity, and greenhouses began to take shape. To design adequately withstood by snow drifts, it is necessary to strengthen the frames, that is to make the arc of a stronger arch pipe with a step of no more than one meter. Furthermore, it should adhere to the rules of operation that are usually described in the warranty certificate or recommended oral sellers ready greenhouses. If a translucent polycarbonate material is installed, its thickness should not be less than 4 mm, and the material must be fixed throughout the set screws sheltered areas on the edges, bases and pediments, preferably with a special thermowashers. And, of course, need to monitor the greenhouse and in time to dump snow without using sharp objects such as shovels. Usually, if it is easy to knock on the polycarbonate from the inside, the snow slides down. Still need to install a backup for the winter each arc, especially if you do not have access to a greenhouse in winter. These props can be purchased or made independently of any durable material (metal or wood).
In the winter garden can be transformed, by and large, any premises where there is a vertical glazing and skylights: swimming pool, court, office. The most common design conservatories: conservatory (self-glazed heated room, designed for growing in greenhouses of exotic plants), a veranda with a translucent roof (it could perform as a function of the dwelling and the conservatory), attic, if there is a partially translucent roof. Gazebo can also be used as a dwelling, or in the event of a greenhouse heating system or installing special heaters.
The configuration of the winter garden can be any, depending on the preferences of the owner. The shape can be rectangular, polygonal or even circular. Modern designs are virtually unlimited possibilities for the realization of dreams. The general rule states that the smaller the area of the glass surfaces, the lower the temperature jumps in the winter garden and the greater the gain in terms of conservation of thermal energy house, to which it is attached. For sale is a ready-made greenhouses in various configurations. For example, in "Finhaus" guarantee long-term operation of the Danish production of greenhouses, offering a choice of color profiles and cap, various advanced options (automatic "Sesame" for the vents, blinds, shelves for flowers). Use these greenhouses can be not only for the cultivation of exotic plants, but also as a gazebo in which to spend leisure hours in the early spring, when it's still cool, and inside greenhouse air is warmed design sun.
Seasonal greenhouses make a lightweight, but its construction is used in the most inexpensive materials. This design requires no foundation. The bottom of the walls can be made of cut timber, and the top and the roof made of wooden frames filled with polyethylene. In the daytime temperatures in the greenhouse gets too high, so the side walls and roof provide ventilation openings.
One popular option is the cost arched greenhouse with a plastic coating on an aluminum tubular frame. For such a device to cut greenhouse tube of desired length and bend them in a semicircle, then the ends of the strengthening in the soil. The distance between the edges depend on the radius of curvature and thickness of pipes, each case must be guided by the bearing capacity of the arc. Placed around the perimeter of the inside rail, to which are attached the ends of the aluminum arches. In one of the ends of a semicircular frame made of wooden slats door frame, which stretched polyethylene sheet. For greater rigidity to the frame rail inserts another diagonally. When the frame is ready, it stretched plastic wrap and fasten it to the rack base with nails or staples. For sealing joints and fixing the pipes of the film is convenient to use tape.
Arched design to build in such a way that it can be gently removed at the end of the season and put in storage until the next one. These greenhouses are often used for growing radishes, strawberries, green. Since these plants are low, then do a squat greenhouse itself.
The condition of strength
For a frame of greenhouses and conservatories are traditionally used wood and metal.
Aluminum alloy does not require maintenance, as opposed to metal or wooden structure. Frames made of aluminum are not deformed, and change the glass in them is easy. However, the aluminum greenhouses have some drawbacks. They lose a night a bit more heat than wood, and they often formed by condensation. Sell them in parts, so that the frame still need to be able to collect. Sometimes on a white plaque aluminum - oxide film. This phenomenon should not be afraid. For the more expensive models use anodized aluminum, reinforced with steel core coated with a special paint or metal.
A tree like many more than the metal. Typically, the frame is made of pine or spruce. However, the wooden buildings rather short-lived, once every few years, the wood should be painted or treated with antiseptic harmless to plants. But even with regular treatment of the greenhouse from softwood are just a few years.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) - the most modern material. Greenhouses from it does not require any maintenance, they need only from time to time to clean. However, this material is very rarely used in the construction of conservatories. U PVC profile is a big disadvantage: the construction of it has a relatively low bearing capacity. Therefore, stained glass windows up to two meters tall even allowed to do with the use of PVC profile, but to make a full conservatory has required a metal substructure, which leads to a serious violation of the design and weighting of its aesthetics.
The condition of transparency
In the past, the construction of greenhouses and conservatories used almost exclusively by the glass. Today, the services of truckers - the various films and plastics.
Plastic film - perhaps the most democratic material for greenhouses. Its main advantage - low price. Coverage must be tightly stretched and fixed on the frame. The film is strong enough, it can withstand 20 degrees of frost, but not resistant to sharp temperature fluctuations and strong winds. Another significant drawback of the film is its high thermal conductivity (90%). Polyethylene is well suited for seasonal greenhouses, but after winter storage is may not be suitable for reuse. The quality greenhouse film depends on its density, which is calculated in microns (um, micrometer). Than their smaller, the film is thinner and therefore less expensive. In order to avoid acquiring substandard goods, is to choose a film and best-known manufacturers have already cut and packaged in bags, which are embedded in the passport production, Standard Set, packing date, etc.
Transparent PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is produced in the form of corrugated sheets. This material has a high light transmission capacity, but absorbs the UV radiation involved in photosynthesis. Therefore, PVC greenhouses in the production process is a special treatment, after which ceases to be a barrier to ultraviolet light. In addition, its service life up to three years. EVA copolymer film, as well as PVC film, polyethylene and is stronger than a few seasons.
The advantages of glass - chemical resistance and high light transmission. Glass greenhouses are used for a long time, provide maximum greenhouse and the greenhouse effect, they also can be installed heaters. Disadvantages of glass - a lot of weight, fragility, costs on construction. For the use of greenhouses is smooth and wavy glass. The first is smooth on both sides and is completely transparent. The second is covered with the waves on one side only. Corrugation scatters light better, and the plants do not suffer from burns. For greenhouses, which requires a lot of heat, or use double-glazed insulating glass units.
In modern greenhouse with frames made of aluminum profile is clamping brackets allow easy replace the glass. If you are using wooden frames still use the traditional method and put the glass in the putty, fixing his nails.
Of plastic materials using acrylic and polycarbonate. Acrylic (plexiglass) durable, with a small thickness is very strong. He passes ultraviolet radiation, and the transparency is not inferior to the glass. However, the cost of acrylic is high, and the greater the thickness, so it is higher, and disproportionately.
Polycarbonate is more elastic and softer than acrylic, and is very durable. This material is quite able to withstand extreme snow and wind loads. Polycarbonate slightly misses the ultraviolet rays, while he has a high light transmission. The panels are strong and well bent, so that you can create arched and domed structures. Polycarbonate is lightweight, has good insulation, is not afraid nor heat nor cold, did not become cloudy and the sun breaks over the years.
The most common use of polycarbonate, which has lower compared with the glass thermal conductivity and scatter light, while letting 80% of the world. The flexibility of this material makes it possible to produce a greenhouse or tunnel arch type. Polycarbonate sheets are well handled by ordinary tools for metal and wood, a little lighter, which also makes it easier to work with them. For the side walls of the greenhouses used sheets 4 mm thick, for roofs - 10 mm thick. The use of polycarbonate can not be dismantled for the winter coat.
For the convenience of plants
To create a favorable microclimate inside the greenhouse can be a greenhouse equipped with a ventilation system, lighting and irrigation. We also need to divert water from the base of the greenhouse, that is, to arrange a gutter. You can install an automatic ventilation system.
Typically, the edges of leaves in the greenhouse, one or two bands for the cultivation of plants, and in the middle for the convenience of making a track. Grow plants directly in the greenhouse soil are not recommended because of the danger of destruction of plant diseases. Experts suggest using for this purpose bags or pots with soil mixture. If you still want to plant in the ground, should be pre-dug soil, making digging with garden compost and 35 g of complex fertilizer on a square. m square. Observe rotation.
In areas set aside for the winter garden (conservatory) shall be created the conditions necessary for normal plant growth and development: specific temperature and light regimes, some humidity. It is important to ensure that appropriate measures of care and proper agricultural techniques of growing plants. Special requirements - to tropical gardens: there must be reproduced humid equatorial jungle, that is, eternal summer with high temperatures do not fall below +22 ° C and humidity 60-70%. The design of the conservatory should be very tight, installation is made with high quality modern heat and waterproofing materials. The use of energy-saving glass, profile design - made of metal plastic or "warm" aluminum. Require additional heating and lighting. Among other things, a tropical garden can do without the use of modern technologies such as automatic control of temperature and climate, automatic heater for glass melting snow on the roof of the conservatory, and electrochromic windows (shading) and automated ventilation.
Winter gardens are created by laws and design, and landscape architecture. Usually, plants are also put small elements of architecture, and (if possible), small water bodies. The floor of the conservatory shall be decorative. The most suitable materials for flooring - tile, ceramic tile, or of artificial stone with a rough surface (to prevent slipping while watering). Sex can be heated.
To date, the release of greenhouse frames involved in a lot of manufacturers. On the market there and ready sets, which are sets of individual elements.