Frame house and the problems of keeping warm





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10.01.2011 00:09
Prefab homes - is one of the most economical options for cottage construction. To frame house was warm, sturdy and reliable, you need to properly perform such work as laying the foundation, erection of a skeleton, laying insulation and wall covering.

Enough blame frame house building! It is a fact of our civilization. Such as construction technology of the pyramids of the giant stone monoliths in ancient times, now lost. Or the erection of the unique strength and beauty of the designs of ceramic bricks, is no longer any way for thousands of years. Or wooden architecture of past centuries did not require nails (probably due to their unavailability) ...

It is in homes with verified, calculated skeletal constructs in which the gaps between the security posts and bridges filled with insulated material, and the outer cladding can be any, in the first half of the XXI century and we have to live, work and play. However, our publication dedicated, first and foremost we are interested in the practice of suburban housing. And there framed buildings are becoming more and more supporters. Meanwhile, even the most advanced technology in the hands of not too civilized performers is evil.

For starters, what with the frame construction in the foreseeable future we will have to face everywhere: in the city and beyond, as well as residential and industrial construction. True, the frames, as well as the wall fencing and insulated inserts may be different. Frames are made of wood (raw, dried, glued), collected from metal, cast in situ concrete in the formwork. From this technology does not lose the right to call framing. With the insulated inserts situation is the same. The space between the security elements can be warm foamed polymer (cheap foam or less democratic extruded polystyrene) or converted into mineral fibers (known to all brands of basalt and glass wool). There are also exotic (at least not yet) offers, such as filling cavities foaming materials based on porous concrete with a mobile installation. The outer and inner lining can be any of: from the same polymers, color and texture simulating a variety of materials, to slabs of natural marble. But all the technology required to be eco-friendly (ie they should not harm human health and the lives of users) and obey the basic laws of physics. In other words, we are taking the reader to think that with all the richness of choice of forms and materials design and build a frame house does not tolerate amateurism.

If you believe this major suburban developers (see review on page 26)., Then a third of private homes being built in our suburbs - frame. In fact, they are much longer, because the stone and wooden houses have a lot of frame elements (eg, roof design attic floor). Frame house building is known to our summer residents for half a century: even in the Stalin era suburban houses were built plank on frame, but as a bulk filler used slag. These buildings were, and quite maintainable, and warm enough to more than one generation of whiling away their winter weekends in a crackling wood stove. In today's cottage and house-building practices are widely distributed three "subspecies" of frame houses.

1. House-platform first-generation


It is the most massive in our housing estates and gardening method of private housing. Methods of designing and building a house on the technology "platform" developed and described in detail by our neighbors - the Finns have been translated into Russian, and sometimes without references to primary sources are described in many domestic benefits to developers. Most often on the technology (more precisely, in accordance with its basics) private country houses erect makeshift way - on their own. To work under the guidance of prospective homeowners are attracted formed on the basis of the USSR national team crews guest workers stationed in the vicinity of gardening or dacha array. This "method" is taken to arms in small construction companies that do not have own production facilities and acquiring materials to the nearest Stroybaza. Meanwhile, home-technology platform is completely rational, and, armed with her, half a century, the Finns successfully address the acute housing problem in the tundra. The frame is formed on a flat foundation (he can be columnar, and tape, and Slab - depending on local conditions and homeowner's purse) on the spot. At first, do the floors and railings of the first floor, then the frame walls, which elevate the platform - foundation of the next floor.

In domestic practice for the construction of a skeleton is most often used rail and polubrus sections 150 and 150 x 150 x 75 mm, "dried" (ie, slightly dried) edged boards, nails and metal corners for connecting the major nodes. This building has undeniable advantages and serious drawbacks. Ins can be considered relatively low cost and has low operating conditions at the site. Unfortunately, the Russian North-West is replete with wetlands and sticky soils: such is the charge for clean and oxygen-rich forest air. It happens that the cranes and heavy truck to the site of construction is simply not to drive, and "kill" the forest cover is not desirable (nature must be "tamed" gradually). In this case, home-based platform, which can be grouped into four hands on a lightweight foundation that is the best decision.

Main, and sometimes insurmountable minus technology - again, its availability, more precisely, the dependence on the integrity and qualifications of the performers. During the 50 years that have elapsed from the time when the Finns began to actively develop and promote frame house building, technology is not standing still. In particular, the power elements, floors and walls they have now regulated by the use of materials of varying quality. To sort the lumber used electronic inspection, and in any hypermarket building products you can buy all the design elements of a future home and a set of materials in strict accordance with the project documentation. We have skeletons often made of raw wood, which is a primitive way of sorts at the time of loading on the sawmill (visible to the naked eye marriage put aside). It is for this reason, the beam is often sag, the frame "is." If we add to violations of technology is also a design flaw - goodbye, tech design, which worked on sharpening the European Construction Institute. Wry frame strength resembles a house of cards, the joints between the insulation and stands will inevitably diverge.

A few words about the insulation of houses. Typically, this use of plate materials based on basalt wool or foam blocks that insert vraspor in the cell skeleton. In the latter case, errors in cutting korektiruyut, filling the small gap foam. In strict compliance with home technology will actually keep warm. Although both options are among the builders of both supporters and opponents. In particular, the foam work easier - it does not cause allergies and is not prone to getting wet, and do not will slip off the wall, leaving a cavity in the cell skeleton. But the high fire risk can not use it indoors, heated stoves and fireplaces. For advocates of precision in the wording of note: the modern styrofoam do not themselves support combustion, but a fire can fill the room acrid smoke, so the construction regulations require isolating polystyrene insulation from flammable structures, such as plaster or gypsum plasterboard.

2. Second generation: domokomplekt


In suburban tracts of the Karelian isthmus, that is located near the border, there are frame-houses of the second generation: "firm" frame of glued items purchased in Finland along with the project, brought to the site of future construction projects and is already among us in Russia, complete with all those that found in the specialized dealers and on the surrounding bases of building materials.

Alas, such a business as a complete set of houses for private clients, today in our region undeveloped, but in a situation where an army of owners of unimproved land is growing exponentially, it has great prospects. Therefore, to talk about such domokomplektah applied to the Leningrad region is in the subjunctive mood.

Well, when you can choose a project to purchase a set of documentation for a complete list of materials needed, go with him to the department a complete set of specialized building a supermarket, where, in accordance with a list of all items ship the finished frame, windows, doors, decorative tiles and accurately, in g " , measuring the required volume of boards and lining for the cladding, roofing ... All the necessary components up to electrical outlets comes in containers from the suppliers directly to you at the construction site where it all meets the foreman to the project and a list of components in their hands: everything from books - and any residue of surplus and scrap, which will have to remove or burn. The latter remain on-site production and are subject to revision. From wood chips and sawdust make decorative tiles and wood briquettes.

Something like this build holiday houses in Europe, many middle-class people who want to save. We like pedantry in relation to construction complete for some reason did not take root. Probably because the domestic house-owners, if not low on money, I prefer a house on a turnkey basis. And if cramped - save on everything, including quality, and are willing to comb all the shops and Stroybaza in search of discounted illiquid.

3. House of the conveyor

Today, the neighborhood of St. Petersburg being built timbered houses not only the guest-worker teams. There are a number of reputable companies to deliver the frame house on the conveyor. Line production, however, does not mean that homes receive the same, as Khrushchev: many architects, whose decisions are single-family houses have become bestsellers in the market ready projects, "sharpen" their development and under-frame technology.

Foundation walls of a frame house prefabrication - sandwich-panels. These products, whose production is supplied to the stream, too, are different. Producers sometimes experimenting with the options facing, and insulated inserts, but leaving the outside of today's review of many technological details, we note that this is where quality control is given priority. And the sandwich panels, and frame enclosure systems, manufactured in the factory, just have to meet state standards, and SNIP.
To a question about the quality of

Each prospective homeowner goes to the dream of building his own way. One - built myself, with the help of relatives and neighbors, the other - only managed a construction site, and the different teams and companies perform certain jobs, and the third - to contract with a construction company, which undertakes to build a house on a turnkey basis. This does not mean that in the latter case, the house will be held, and in the first - no. Moreover, not all construction companies provide the claimed in advertising money.

One of the key issues related to the frame house building - teplosberezheniya. Sometimes private customer refuses a frame house in favor of, for example, chopped or stone only because, he said, "it is shaky structure that windswept. But companies that produce frame houses, love to draw in advertising leaflets histogram showing that 10 cm of insulation used them effectively replace almost half meter brickwork. The truth, as usual, lies somewhere in between, what happened to make sure "sign" of builders and homeowners to experiment.

In the editorial "AOR" decided to test the freshly home with the thermal imager - quite an expensive measuring device, showing on the monitor all the heat leakage. We invited representatives of several construction companies of showmanship, to prove to buyers that they build quality.

However, as responsible experimenters, we "start with yourself, as an alternative to check your own country houses, built on its own the same projects. On appeal editorial willingly responded to the company "TKDom Gatchina, where the imager brand Flir systems have long been used in the delivery of houses. By the way, it was in the company kindly gave this instrument to test both our "model" homes, and homes of others. In addition, Alexander Vodovozov, CEO TKDom Gatchina proposed for the study and the company's facilities.

Our choice fell on a house built in the village Volodarsky two years ago. This cottage from the "sandwich" panels faced with finishing the brick on the outside looks perfect. Visit our hosts somewhat surprised: why test house with central heating which, they said, no problem.

So, proceed to the measurements. As can be seen on the monitor, the loss of all there is, however, frame technology has nothing to do with it. Heat, let in this case and is not fatal, but it goes through the closed windows and doors (on the screen of the device, the lens is pointed at the house, you can see the red squares that mimic the contours of the window openings). How would we justify to advertising glass manufacturers that their products hold heat like a thermos, precious calories go through the windows of a lot harder than through the frame walls with standard insulation. In addition, the "cold bridges" is a metal door entrance, even if it is laid inside the insulated material. Double doors in our climate - an absolute must.

The second test pattern - holiday home near the village of Bolshaya Izhora. This is not pre-assembled, and construction, which had been worked by local specialists. As a methodological guide for the foreman to use the book, which describes the construction of the frame on the technology "platform". Cell carcass insulated with foam inserts from 150 mm. Frankly, the owners complained that the house cool. And now, staring at the screen miracle of electronics with the proud inscription «Flir systems», just fixing a few tenths of a degree different colors, owner of the house, sadly noted: "Yes, there Vasily blunder - was distracted, and then Mustafa zapenit lazy ... most problematic were the joints between floors and walls, as well as places of contiguity truss system to the upper trim framing the walls. At one of the images presented here, you can see how lit fragment of the pediment: the workers, for the internal lining gypsum plasterboard, simply "forgot" to put a heater. Summary: The problem turned out good, but not yet corrected deficiencies, it will be only a summer. Of course, the house can be a full-fledged winter, but his owners will have to tinker. Neighbors who watched over by our experiments, suggested by their example (here they are "popular" recipes that do not accept any of rationalism "), to expand tax base and house brick. Such victims, of course, to anything. However, in places that are lit on the monitor of the thermal imager red interior lining will have to deal (well, that the wallpaper has not yet had time to stick).

Everything I saw and described makes the following conclusions. Firstly, building a frame house to trust the professionals. Secondly, the work of professionals in any case have to control other professionals. In carrying out these kinds of works, as foundation work, erection of a skeleton, laying insulation and wall covering, behind the artist must constantly be controller with a laser level and a thermal imager. Thus, the prefabricated houses are less dependent on human factors, rather than domokomplekty and design of self-assembly.

The following publications, we will investigate the quality of houses from a calibrated timber and profiled bar. They found very different, but also completely treatable "childhood diseases".

Philippe URBAN
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