In primitive times, when people still had not occurred to build, and "square footage" in the caves they were provided by nature itself, the requirements for housing are very simple. Then, comfortable and convenient it was any housing that protects against bad weather and dangerous predators.
Appeared later than the first home-tents or built of rough stone structure (the historians do not give a precise answer, how exactly was the first man's house) - performs the same function as the cave, that is basically designed to protect against external adverse factors and dangers.
Later, when people have learned to build more complex structures, the requirements for housing started to increase. People began to plan for your home, both inside and outside (in courtyard) with respect to their life. The layout was an important factor, which depended on the kind of man and his lifestyle.
On the layout of the house affected by many conditions - geographic location, terrain and building materials, occupation rights, or of the settlement, the traditions of society and social situation of the future tenant. Many of these factors are important in our days.
From ancient times, came to us many methods of construction and types of planning. For example, the story frame building dates back several thousand years. Construction of room in the house for cooking - the kitchen - was the crucial moment at the dawn of mankind. Enfilade and in-line system in which one pass goes through a series of rooms, or parallel to it - also used in a very long time, and were especially prevalent in the Middle Ages in the palaces of the rulers, or just the important and wealthy people.
In our country in the last century was dominated model construction. "Stalin", "Khrushchev," Brezhnev's house "- a classification" series name of the ruler "- still used today and understandable to everyone. Although it should be noted that within this series, there are differences. For example, Stalin's home in the conventional sense - it is a massive structure with high ceilings and plenty of room, big kitchen and bathrooms. However, many "Stalin" is small bathrooms ridiculous forms and the lack of a bathroom, because they were built for the mass accommodation of the working class.
"Khrushchev" also built different. There is a makeshift panel, which on initial designs were intended for temporary housing solutions before the onset of communism.
Model building still exists today, but the series has become much more, and most importantly - has received widespread construction of individual projects, which may eventually supplant same type of "concrete boxes".
Large apartment complexes and small private cottages are now often built by architects of world renown. They are already planning requirements are not limited to the existence of "comfort" in the form of baths and toilets. All the latest developments to ensure the comfort and modern style of life are used in individual homes of our time.
Theatre begins with a hanger, and the house starts with a hallway - because this is the first area in which a man gets, coming into the house. There must be enough space to house owners and guests could remove outer clothing, and hang it, and place the shoes.
Next is all depends on the number of family members and their lifestyle in accordance with which you zonirovat interior - kitchen, living room, bedrooms, bathrooms, utility rooms.
It often happens that two and three room apartments have a similar area. In this case, you need to focus on the number of family members and the required number of bedrooms.
By modern standards, the kitchen must have sufficient area to perform well and features a dining room and bedrooms are well away from busy public areas - Master bedroom should have its own large bathroom. Second or third, smaller in size bathroom, planned "guest" and is projected closer to the entrance to the apartment.
Relationship between the zones is possible to implement in different ways. Zones can go directly into one another, or be associated buffer space, such as a corridor. However, we must remember that in today's housing presence of long corridors or hallways connecting is minus - because these areas are not operational and only take up floor space - and that applies to this type of error, such as poor correlation of residential and nonresidential areas. Conversely, in older homes with remodeling is now accepted to increase the living space due to non-residential. In this case, according to experts, the ratio of residential to nonresidential area must be at least 1.8.
The figures show examples of successful planning. We can immediately note that in these examples is not the corridors, "eat up" valuable space on the home. Meters of living space here used in the most functional. Zone associated entrance hall and a smooth transition from one to another - ie, the area is used as efficiently as possible. Bedrooms on examples far removed from the kitchen, there are several bathrooms. Reserved and guest area clearly separated.
By an unfortunate layouts include facilities with long corridors, occupying a large area or a flat area over 50 square meters - but having only one bathroom, or planning a small kitchen. Extremely inconvenient continuous rooms.
In addition, quite often there are elongated room, pencil cases, reaching a long rectangle of the window - awkward in shape, with poor lighting, difficult to adjust for a comfortable stay.
Zoning can also be a failure - for example, direct "neighborhood" (next door), kitchen and toilet - a serious disadvantage for total comfort home. Or as a failure is considered to be the location of a single bathroom in the opposite direction from the entrance end of the apartment.
When you select a layout of the apartment should pay attention to future routes from tenants in the apartment. For example, if you want to install a home theater system in the living room, it is best to choose a layout in which the living will not pass. Otherwise, always go by tenants or guests will interfere with viewing.
Summarizing, we can identify the main requirements for the planning of residential space:
1. Buffer, non-functional area (corridors, halls) do not take up much space. On the contrary, all designed so that almost all the space given to the functional areas.
2. Sami area conveniently placed and interconnected.
Layout of dwelling - a serious issue that besides the obvious has a number of subtle, not flashy factors, but no less important. For example, when planning is necessary to adhere to a set of rules affecting the security of the home. In addition, certain rules when planning residential enshrined in law, and their need to negotiate and secure documents. Therefore, determining their wishes to the layout of the house will never be more than refer to specialists who can explain the advantages and disadvantages of a particular plan.