So, what does the proper wood for construction - material such seemingly familiar to all.
Related article: On the advantages of a frame houseWe softwood
The most common species used for construction of the wooden houses are, you guessed it, conifers - pine, fir, larch (the subtleties of language: larch - pine tree, with only deciduous needles in autumn). There are several reasons. In the north, where the wooden construction is more common than in the South, softwood deciduous simply dominate - are more even in mixed forests, not to mention pine forests, spruce forests. In the South, dominated by deciduous trees, but there are fewer forests, in principle, and still made house built of brick stone.
Spruce and pine timber well tractable; larch - worse, but it is less common. Due to the resin, it is less prone to malicious attacks every fungus, microbes, etc. (in the subtropics, by the way, and termites do not eat off of it).
What wood of conifers prefer? Many believe that the most "thoroughbred" of all the conifers - larch. She is the most dense: dense pine 20 percent, eating - and a half times. This is a plus - it is stronger. This is a minus - for the more severe the house requires a solid foundation, although it should be understood that the fundamental importance and the thickness of the logs, and larch can take thinner than the spruce and pine. (Incidentally, there are "opinion" that the larch wood so heavy that sinks in water - completely on the conscience of this opinion "replicated": the average density of the tree - 0.66 g / cc.) But the strength of that is a plus, has a downside: treatment of larch yields worse - but then build once, and live for years and decades, right? But the fact that the house of her beautiful, almost no one disputes: on the hill is kind of a gray-brown nobility!
Deserve all the respect and pale yellow pine, and - even more - light pine. Their wood is strong enough and well treated, is opposed, as we have said, to rot. They are most readily available and almost the entire territory of our country.
From local hardwood in the North West is rare, but used perhaps only oak. He is very handsome, strong, but poorly to treatment - requires special skill and subtlety, so it does not spoil. And dry it harder than conifers - can cause internal stresses that lead to deformations and cracks.
Cylinder, carriage ...
And what exactly is a wooden house, its frame? He is one of what exactly that is what comes out of a tree trunk on its construction? The classic version - this round logs, without branches, twigs and bark. The logs are carefully adjusted to each other in the groove. This is not just on the foundation of the future house, and a specially equipped site. In the modern mechanized technology - in the woodworking shop, where it is produced by special machines, or, say, devices. There they were, and dried. Then labeled timber is transported to the construction site and installed on the foundation, rather than on base.
If the timber cut on all four sides, it will block. Constructing the frame of a house, work with them easier, and it can be done immediately on the foundation: to adjust, no problem - it's every log individually, and the beam length / width / height unified. Difficulties - the only course of its production: the technology of drying, for example, must comply with very carefully, otherwise the geometric shape (box) can be broken, and the result is sometimes said to be a propeller. Found a way out - glued timber produced from multiple boards, so their primal form holds confidently.
We mention yet less common in our material, but perhaps promising - a gun carriage. In Russia, he "came" a decade or a little more back from Norway, known since ancient times, becoming a competitor to traditional logs. What is it? And do not log, but not timber - timber, cropped only two (opposite) sides. As a result, even thick logs easily adjusted to each other. The Vikings were people serious: departed "to gain" preferred to leave their families in homes with this impressive wall.
What is a good ...
Let's talk about the obvious advantages of wood as a material for home construction. This is, first, of course, the thermal conductivity. So: the thermal conductivity of pine and fir trees in two and a half times lower than that of a hollow red brick, and four times - the corpulent. Thermos - not a thermos, but to create a similar heat transfer properties of brick wall should be several times thicker than the walls of wood! Yes, you can still take into account is rarely taken into account such a property as heat, which is the ability to store heat. And it is a tree in half (all on average) more than the bricks.
It turns out that a brick house (with the same heat transfer properties of the walls) is much heavier than the wood: and he is heavier than a brick wood and the walls are much thicker should be the foundation and powerful. And this is - just another burden on the ground. Sometimes, of course, it does not matter, but it happens that the total weight of the house, and therefore - ground pressure is important - it all depends on where you are building a house.
Let me mention another advantage of the wooden house, insisting that it is essential: a wooden house is beautiful. Of different tree beautiful little different: color, texture, and method of processing a master's hand - all because a little different. But the fact that such a house - a factor of psychological comfort of people living in it - is any psychologist will tell you.
A few words about the conventional wisdom that a wooden house "breathes", taking the air out of excess moisture and giving it when the need arises. Dubious dignity - in the summer and the window does not open: air - from the street, and the whole effect of this "breath" disappears in minutes. However, if it is, is a virtue, is all. Yes, in the empty spaces between the cells that make up the wood, - the air, it contains a certain number of moisture, which share in the outer layers can vary, depending on the ambient humidity. But how much does this affect this very air is already changing its moisture content - nobody ever really have not measured. We also note that the void - in the larch and pine, for example - a very different amounts. And given that the tree is often handled poorly or overlooking leaky flame retardants, preservatives, varnishes ... his ability to "breathe" is highly questionable. "The good news," what of it that by and large is not required.
... And what ...
The word "bad" language does not turn to pronounce. Yes, like a tree house-building material has its drawbacks. But if you know about them in advance and try to reduce them under construction, then, really, they are not so scary.
It is believed that the main drawback of a wooden house - it was his high flammability. Yes, a tree, as opposed to brick or stone, lit. But, first, to furnish the brick / stone house (both external and internal) are very often used wood - in the form of, for example, lining, and it lights up faster than a thick log. Second, modern impregnation-retardants - anti ignition - do not spoil the look, but the probability of ignition is greatly reduced. Soaking in the operation of home fire-retardant must be conducted regularly, every three to five years. Next: wiring, heating systems, particularly stoves and fireplaces in every home should be carried out most carefully, and - most important! - Thoughtful, but in a wooden - especially.
On the second deficiency, we have a little saying: tree still the material of organic origin, therefore, for someone (such is the nature) - it is food. These others - the various fungi and bacteria. There are also small insects such as beetle-barbel, which lays its eggs in the wood, gnawing at it for them "home." It is necessary before construction of the house to make sure that the tree was not originally been infected with some blue or, for example, gnilistym fungus. Remember that wood for your loved one at home - not out of any wood! And to prevent a hundred years ago had the means, for example, copper sulfate solution, which pervades the tree. However, it is still used as the familiar sodium chloride, aka table salt. But already in the XXI century supply various antiseptics and inteksitsidov - it's arsenal, there are "two / three in one" - they are also flame retardants, they also stain and (or) the varnish. To begin, however, should not they, as with all well-known architects, builders technological methods. The ground floor must be high enough removed from the land base of the tree should be isolated - from the infiltration of moisture. (Of course it should be fairly well dried - but there are several reasons to say about this later.) Protect the walls from rain, of course, completely impossible - the wind still has not been canceled, but by water pouring from the roof, making the drainage system - it is necessary . The house must be designed natural ventilation, which allows to avoid excessive moisture. Impregnate wood preservatives and inteksitsidami necessary, as flame retardants in the operation systematically.
Dry wood has less than crude. To an already built house nor lead to cracks, log, beam, carriage must first dry (as we see, not only for the protection of the fungus). The drying process - not an easy process. You can, of course, to dry naturally in air, but it is very long - almost for years. In the oven quickly. True, if you break the technology in order to "more quickly", the core will be slower to dry the outer layers. Internal stress arises as a consequence - the cracks, often almost imperceptible, but this and future bugs / mold, and not so nice look - and I continue to insist that it is a significant advantage of the wooden house.
Agree: these flaws - or the "human factor", ie non-technology or anything that can be significantly reduced. Even when talking about the merits had heard about the heat transfer properties of the objection, and a wooden house from blowing all the cracks, especially at the corners. Well, if not done by hand, if all the technology violated if ... You know, that can be made of brick-wall curve akuyu "add"! From this'm not that brick house - bad.
In general, we must turn to the professionals, you have to put effort, it must be remembered that the house - like a living creature, and he has to constantly live help. A nice wooden house will thank you for it. Their special living warmth, its beauty - your peace of mind.