Now the company is actively developing new, environmentally friendly, durable and reliable materials for construction and finishing, technology is constantly being improved, but the principle of building a frame house has not undergone substantial changes. Tercentenary of experience with this method shows its effectiveness.
Related article: For those who build luxury country houseThe principle of a frame house
The main distinguishing characteristic of this type of houses - the presence of the frame. When we talk about houses made of various materials such as wood, brick, non-removable polystyrene formwork, aerated and foam concrete, we can easily imagine what will be the appearance of a building. And as you can imagine frame house? The term "framework" can be defined as a basis for building or buildings consisting of rods, the individual elements that are bonded to each other. From the quality of performance depends on the frame of its durability and performance characteristics. Outside the frame is invisible. Prefab homes can be externally absolutely no resemblance to each other, which is due to the use of different finishing materials.
The uniqueness of frame houses is in the following features: relatively thin walls retain heat very efficiently. When reducing the thickness of the wall up to the amount necessary to maintain the design, material consumption is reduced, but the heat loss increases. As technology began to emerge materials with high resistance to heat, so when you use frame technology, part of the wall that is not necessary from the standpoint of structural safety has been replaced by high-tech insulation. Articleene, as a result, has high strength and good thermal properties.
Other features of the frame technology related to the protection of insulation against the penetration of moisture and water vapor, because water, being a good conductor of heat, with a heater in the cluster significantly affects its properties. If we compare the walls of a wooden, brick and wood-frame house, they will be the same to keep warm during the next wall thickness: 45 cm, 210 cm, 18 cm, respectively. These differences are due to multiple layers of the wall of a frame house.
The main thing - not the number of layers, and the sequence of their arrangement, as each layer is a separate story, with its inherent properties. In frame houses for the performance of the bearing and fencing-wall insulating functions correspond to different layers and elements. Load-bearing properties of walls and ceilings provide beams, wooden racks, and piping, and steam-wind-proof membrane, insulation and sheathing elements combine to provide sound and heat insulation, and protect the design house of negative environmental influences. Moreover, all materials used in this system should have the best quality to be more effective in their specialized characteristics, than the universal building material. Combining different materials in order to best implement the necessary functions for the construction of a frame house - a task more difficult than the construction of walls of brick or concrete.
It is believed that the first steel-frame houses build in Canada, but they may be called not only Canadian, and Finnish. A curious reason for their appearance. About three hundred years ago there was an urgent need to build low-cost and prefabricated houses. The principle of the framework will significantly save material and time allotted for construction. For example, a timber for the construction of the house required almost two times less.
These houses are builtor also in the Soviet Union. However, their reputation was not very promising. Frame houses were built on the standard designs for country houses, dormitories or barracks, and showed not too comfortable living conditions. Clearly, materials and technologies that were used did not conform to the current level of development, but the stereotype of these buildings interfere with the objective view of their advantages.
Many of our fellow citizens are prejudiced against modern Western technology as a house-building to something unreliable, "cardboard". Although in recent years many Russian citizens have to pay more attention to building construction frame, owing to the activity of a new generation and increasing the amount of information about the technology. Reliability of these homes prove time and experience. Prefab buildings are used even in polar expeditions. You can also give you an example of how such houses suffered an earthquake in 1995 in Japan. Such facts have attracted attention and are a good motivator to increase the popularity of timber frame houses in Russia.
Types of timber frame houses
The most common variety - it's skeleton-frame and frame-panel houses. Construction of the first type really opens up wide possibilities for the realization of unconventional ideas into reality. When designing, you can make your wishes, but in the process of building offer a variety of amendments and additions. Very pleasant to live in a house that is built on your own project. Installation will also be carried out before your eyes. About frame building construction is often said that it is, conversely, allows you to design the house yourself, get housing standard and not very comfortable. This view applies, in general, panel-frame houses. After all panels are really going to work and are typical, it may be concluded that the same houses. However, no embarrassed by the fact that the majority of urban residents live in the same type sproektirovannyh apartments, and it does not prevent the creation of individually decorated living space. Besides, if we talk about panel-frame houses, their projects may also vary. The main advantages of this type of homes are speed of construction, durability (the ability to withstand an earthquake up to 9 points) and the potential to add at home in the future.
The foundation and walls
One of the hallmarks of a frame house foundation. When using traditional methods of construction of private houses foundation work can take up to 30% of the value of the house or even more. In this recessed foundation realizes its function for easy at home not in full measure. For contemporary homes, as a rule, are calculated more simplified versions of the foundation and to build a frame house used almost the simplest, but most practical. The most popular are the following types of foundations: strip, bar or plate malozaglublennaya monolithic. In deciding on the choice of the foundation should focus on information about the specifics of soil on the site for construction. There is a savings from the foundation, while not at the expense of durability and reliability at home.
The walls of frame houses consist of uprights, trim (upper and lower) and wall cladding. By tying distribute the load is transmitted to the rack, the load rack and then transfer to the waist, and so on. Sheathing is used to make wall space frame rigidity. Select step counters can be based on parameters of a heater and the load, whose magnitude is related to the number of bearing floors and roofs of snow congestion. All elements of the wall frame assembled on a bed of nails / screws / screws. The walls of frame houses, of course, does not correspond to the stereotype that the wall should be impressive in thickness, but for its durability and insulating properties, they are not inferior to traditional designs, thus eqstronghold in the materials for the walls, too, is a plus in a future owner of the house.
Mysteries of insulation
When we look at the frame house, we see a exterior finishing material, respectively, may appear and wooden frame (block-house) and a stone house (brick or stone imitates the clinker tiles). In your address this may also be plastered panels, lining or some other material. By covering the outside of the hidden frame, windproof membrane which protects himself and frame insulation, vapor barrier layer is then and only then interior home.
In addition to saving the budget in the construction of frame houses, also achieved savings of heat (for example, 3 times when compared to the brick house) and the inner space (by reducing the thickness of the walls). Naturally, all this is possible with proper installation of the walls.
You can also achieve the required level of insulation and thermal conductivity due to a small increase in the thickness of exterior walls. Annual changes in temperature do not affect significantly the design of the house. A choice of interior layouts, layout of rooms and materials for interior will be completely at your disposal. All internal communication, including wiring, are placed inside the walls. It should be noted that the frame construction technology is used not only in northern areas, but the thickness of the insulation layer to higher temperatures will be higher.
Another advantage of timber frame houses are perfectly smooth wall, which is important in the repair. This is due to the very design of the house.
Frame technology also virtually without prejudice to the appearance of the site which is under construction. This also means that we can keep building work even in the absence of roads and comfortable in almost any terrain.
The share of doubt
One of the most pressing issues concerns the durability of a frame house. At this point thingscomfort different views: one can see the options from 30 to 100 years. The first figure, of course, raises some concerns. But here it may be not so much the technology itself, as much of a house. But anyway, let us consider a number of issues that relate to the life of frame buildings.
Because the house is the basis for a framework on how reliably it has been collected, is protected during the preparation and dried, will depend on its service life. May give different advice about the assembly process. It is sometimes said that the must-join tree and the tree, someone stands for a way to build a tree-to-metal. Under both methods have been developed various solutions to problems, allowing to ensure the rigidity of the framework.
Often fear is the fact that the timber may be subject to decay. Solving the problem suggests itself: it is necessary to achieve the lowest level of moisture in the wood. In this case it is quite difficult to find properly dried wood, you can also face the fact that the documents will be registered one per cent humidity, but in reality will be different. At what rate should be targeted? The construction companies to adhere to recommended level of 9 to 15%. Some sources say about 22%. Books for the construction set a limit of up to 25%.
Recall that it is better to adhere to the lowest level. Also impregnated with a special frame ognebiozaschitoy (which is not impregnated glazing). Please note that the location of the frame is hidden. Durability of construction will depend, among other things, the period of operation of heaters and internal communications (pipes, heating systems, etc.) has a value and obsolescence factor. Determine the service life before major repairs may be the least durable of the composite element.