The house, built in half-timbered technology they are very typical, we can say, unique look is a real discovery for fans of originality, as well as those who wish to build a beautiful and practical home. Portal Cottage.ru continues the series of publications on various building materials, their main advantages and construction costs. As you can guess, in this article we will focus on фахверке. Let us say at once: having seen such a house once, it is unmistakable.
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The term «Fachwerk» comes from the German fach werk, which means panel construction. History of Fachwerk is calculated not even for centuries, but for thousands of years: the oldest known building of wood frame construction is a Japanese temple, built more than 1,300 years ago. In Europe, cabin appeared in the fifteenth century in Germany, where framed construction and now enjoys great popularity.
Фахверковая technology is, in fact, carried out the frame, which looks like an element of decoration. According to Sergei Цывина, head of the branch «Prospekt Vernadskogo» company «Incom-Estate», in medieval Europe, the space between elements of the framework are filled with anything - clay, straw, sometimes even debris, and the resulting panel of extruded, разравнивали and covered with plaster. «Traditionally межкаркасные panel painted in white color, and frame elements - all shades of brown from Golden honey to almost black. It is at home with such colour decision and not all of the wooden frame structures - became part of the buildings in the style of framing», - comments Цывин.
Technology framing is a frame-skeleton type of construction, in which the carrier is a basis of the spatial section of wooden diagonal elements located under a different angle. According to Sergei Pankov, Deputy Director of construction company «Country Project», half-timbered houses have a rigid frame from the columns (vertical elements), beams (horizontal elements) and braces (diagonal elements). In the classic version frame of the house run of oak, now often used glued or ordinary solid timber, as the use of oak beams increases the value of a home by 20-50% compared with the more «simple» versions of the framework.
The space of the frame can be filled with different material ranging from Adobe or polypropylene plates, sandwich panels, which are attached to the frame, brick or wood, say the experts of the company Vesco Construction. All the elements of this design are treated with antiseptic substances that allows to avoid external influence of the environment. When laying of fill material beam skeleton remain outside that gives the house a characteristic distinctive look. Most often, half-timbered houses in modern style is a combination of a skeleton from glued beams and «stuffing» of sandwich panels.
Delicate and respectable
The construction of the half-timbered houses is already known and widely spread in European countries - Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Belgium, in Russia this technology is not widespread at all. To understand the reasons of this «injustice»and focus more attention on the strengths and weaknesses half-timbered houses.
The main advantages of half-timbered houses, like any other wooden frame structure, experts consider the speed and ease of Assembly: a wooden frame of a two-storey house is quite possible to build three weeks, about the same amount will be spent on the paneling of the frame panels. About three months will be spent on the installation of the roof and Windows of the house. Thus, one can build a half-timbered house for 4-6 months.
Also, according to Sergei Цывина, when such technology is applicable to any type of roof - from ceramic to metal. In addition, wooden frame, leather panels, much easier constructions of logs, monolith and brick therefore, the timber-framed houses can be built on the Foundation of the shallow. «Frame of laminated timber is very little prone to shrinkage, therefore, the house does not "play" and is not deformed. However, this frame is robust and able to withstand heavy loads. Flammability of the timber and its susceptibility to fracture now easily compensated by using special impregnations, to protect against rotting, bugs, ignition», - says Цывин.
Also half-timbered houses not dampen the autumn and spring rains and not freeze in winter: it is half-timbered houses are built even in the permafrost zone. Sandwich-panels with high-quality insulation thickness of 0,2 m (on the ability to retain heat comparable to a brick wall 2 metres wide, that allows saving up to 50% power compared with brick house a similar area during heating. Фахверкхаусы, among other things, allow you to do a large glazing area - the Sunny weather rooms of such houses is simply flooded with light.
«The recognized advantages of half-timbered houses is their beautiful appearance: bent from all angles struts attach the houses of the delicate work and lightness. However, a timber-framed houses inherent quality and reliability. For antique lovers surface of the frame artificially sostarivayut and covers the patina. Half-timbered houses allow to recreate the atmosphere of a prosperous European suburb. Neat house, well-groomed streets and abundance of flowers create an amazingly comfortable space», - Sergiy Цывин.
To a significant disadvantage of the houses built according to this technology, should include short life. «Despite the fact that most of the materials used in the construction, durable enough, problems with the insulation, the expiry date of which not more than 25 years. When replacing the heat insulator dismantling of the facade wall and dismantle the frame. Also disadvantages include low noise isolation, as the walls of the house are quite thin», - says Sergey Pankov.
Plus, the frame houses are still the majority of potential buyers associated with cheap offshore houses of the Soviet period, which quickly froze and отсыревали, although high thermal insulation properties of such houses is not worse than brick and wooden buildings. However, until this stereotype is completely unreasonable exists and prevents the rapid growth of demand.
«Beware of imitations»
Today in Russia used to a greater extent not exactly half-timbered houses and its imitation. Most often beams just fill the outside of the walls - plaster, wood, stone, achieving a similar aesthetic effect, tells Vasilisa Bazhenova, managing partner of the developer program «New villas».
«Фахверком now called almost any house, decorated on the outside characteristic pattern of dark boards on a light background. Such simulation on the market known, but it is more of a stylization,» agrees Vladimir Yakhontov, managing partner of «MIEL-Suburban real estate». According to him, for today in Russia the true framing is home to 60% made of glass, which is attached to the beams-bars. This cottage ultimately turns out to be very beautiful, difficult in execution, and therefore expensive. According to the expert, this house makes sense to build on open space, with a beautiful landscape, natural difference of heights, near water. «It is not a serial house, and every time a unique project involving additional difficulties in operation, " he says. - Therefore, the proportion of true half-timbered houses is very small, such houses are literally unit». As told Deputy General Director of Vesco Consulting Tatyana Alekseeva, over the last 5 years the development of the primary market of low-rise real estate in Moscow suburbs were built about 30 cottages in the budget of about $1 million for property, including the land.
Glued laminated timber and sandwich panels do not belong to the expensive materials: frame houses cheaper brick, wooden and even houses of concrete blocks. However, we cannot say that Fachwerk - cheap construction technology. According to General Director of Vesco Construction Vadim Ivkina, the cost of construction of a «square» - timbered houses is equal to the cost of building a house out of bricks.
As Sergei Цывин, cost-timbered houses in the Moscow region is determined not so much by his конструктивом and performance characteristics, how much prestige of the route, distance from the infrastructure, and the availability and condition of communications.
Half-timbered houses really have a very bright, unique appearance, but tastes differ and aesthetic factor is a purely subjective measure. Each person has his own view of the beautiful, and the same house may seem beautiful and solid one buyer and nothing remarkable way. Experts of company «Inkom» report that half-timbered houses, buyers tend to choose from 35 years, with the traditional system of values in which priority is family and children, well-appointed house and stable work. Despite the positive qualitative characteristics of half-timbered houses, the price component, according to experts, is a significant obstacle to increasing popularity of these cottages. In turn, the relatively high cost can be explained by low popularity фахверкхаусов: until such houses are one-off product of the country market.