If the soil is clay on the site, have to seriously bury the foundation - to the level of freezing (130 cm in our region). Plus basement - another meter from the ground floor to first floor. This is also a whole floor! And if a part of the sand and water table is deep enough, the whole time to dig in and use the space gratis - required height basement provides virtually no additional cost, as the strip foundations (required for each capital construction) is laid almost at the same depth.
Construction of a cellar or basement (which rises above ground level at approximately half the height) is beneficial in many ways. There are easily accommodated garage, workshop, storage rooms, sauna, sauna, toilet, lounge, fitness room, boiler room, boiler room, engineering equipment. Many rooms are grouped utility, freeing up valuable space above-ground floors, on site there is no need to create redundant driveways and sidewalks, eliminated fragmentation and disorganization of the building. And if you have windows in the basement of a basement gets full, bright and comfortable rooms in operation, improving the overall thermal regime at home. Architects around the world are now increasingly using "underground" space available there shops, cinemas, sports facilities, offices, parking lots and warehouses. Modern cellar - it's not antiquated cellar and a full room.
Related article: Building a house in the winter: the advantages and disadvantages
In recent years, some citizens began to organize in the basement wine cellar - is a classic use case in many countries. In this case, have their tricks, so designing and building wine cellars to specialists. Estimated cost of works - from 5 thousand dollars, and the upper limit is not restricted.
Particularly interesting solutions to pictorial composition and placement of house facilities at various levels, which is possible in a difficult terrain. In one architectural project under the ground was a large part of the area of the cottage, and under the English lawn near the house placed a huge living room with fireplace. Its wall of glass left on the hillside behind the site, with a magnificent view. In the above-ground, visible from the road side of the building were only a bedroom and a veranda.
Soil - a constant source of moisture, and harmful for both building materials and for rights. Especially in spring when the ground water rising to the surface of the earth and it overflows with moisture. Therefore, the construction of the foundation and basement of the house required waterproofing for all their height and area. When the basement is supposed to turn almost into the living room, to carry out this work must be done very carefully, and in severe cases - involving experts.
However, if your house is not very large, and groundwater is not moving to the threshold, you can try to solve the problem yourself.
1. First, you need to ensure drainage. Dig a trench around the house to the depth of the basement and place a special tube with a tap groundwater in the lower section of terrain. These tubes are on sale now in every hardware store, preferably tubes coated with geotextiles, because they are smaller than silt. However, this is not a panacea - drainage eliminates only on big water and the soil remains moist.
2. The second mandatory event - a device blind area of concrete or asphalt (durable and waterproof belt around the house, half a meter wide-meter), to take away from the walls melt and rainwater. The main focus during the work should be paid to the quality seal space adjacency to the cap or wall of the house, as it is here that always cracks in the asphalt concrete shrinkage and deformation of sedimentary soil around the building. As a sealant can be used tiokolovye or urethane mastic.
3. A classic and very secure, though troublesome design solution - the device "clay castles", which our ancestors did. To this end, the space around a basement laid seasoned, well-mixed clay with no inclusions are carefully ramming her layers of 15-20 cm is how was completed waterproofing of old buildings in St. Petersburg, which destroyed public utilities during the low-skilled plumbing and sewage systems. Basements, of course, immediately flooded.
4. Simple modern solution - pasting the walls of the basement from the outside of roll materials such as roofing or stekloizola. When malovlazhnyh and dry soils rather double coating the walls with hot bitumen or mastic. Wrapping and coating is performed outside, inside they quickly tear off even a small water pressure.
5. Waterproofing basement floors do with the device screed (concrete layer, which serves as the basis of flooring). May apply such a scheme: to level the floor sand, well compacted (possibly - sprinkled with crushed stone), to shed water, to lay plaster mesh (or rebar), pour on a layer of concrete beacons at least 50 mm, lay a thick plastic film or stekloizolom (with overlap and gluing the joints), put a heater, pour a second layer of ties with reinforcement. Along the contour of the room and leave a seam sealing tape. When using extruded foam as insulation layer may be tie one on top of foam and water proofing. Instead of the metal reinforcement can be applied plastic nets or special additives to concrete - fiberglass, elastifikatory, etc. If the groundwater level above the floor basement, under the first screed is laid a layer of clay 250 mm (see above - the device "a clay castle"). These jobs require skills and experience, laying the primitive cement-sand mortar facing imminent cracking of the screed.
6. Before starting work on waterproofing the basement, should look for leaks. Find one by the whitish trail - Salty Efflorescence - places where the moisture leaches out of concrete bonding agents and salt. If these signs show up at the junctions of blocks and not too much to solve the problem will be "a little blood." Among the dry mix is specially designed to combat techami. Prepared on the basis of their solution is grasped very quickly and in high humidity conditions to ensure good adhesion.
7. Among the serious professional waterproofing methods - elastic coating compositions based on cement, penetrating waterproofing and waterproofing horizontal cutoff by injection of hydrophobic (water repellent) formulations. The first two of these methods, you can try to apply yourself. Obmazochny method allows the creation of flexible, "rezinobetonnogo" layer a few millimeters thick - finished a two-component mixture is smeared with a stiff brush and leveled with a roller. Penetrating waterproofing - the common name of compositions like "Kalmatron, Penetron, etc. After coating this composition of concrete foundation construction is clogging the pores and capillaries of concrete insoluble crystals. The key to success of this technology - strict adherence to manufacturer's instructions.
Under the ground is always cold. Anyone know how to chill in the caves, some icy core and well water. And at the same time, the land is always warm. In winter, frost, a meter of soil temperature is above freezing, water does not freeze. Live in a mud hut not too comfortable, but possible. Had global catastrophe - the people would hide in the deep basements and subways. In other words, under the ground temperature is stable, but substantially below comfortable. So if you want to live in a basement, it should be warm.
In addition to providing comfort in the underground rooms underground insulation provides several advantages - reduced overall costs for heating, structural engineering buildings are operated in a sparing mode, increasing their safety. And if the insulation is constructed entirely outside waterproofing then, and she herself, and elements of buildings take on added protection against mechanical and thermal stresses. When the device insulation in the basement from the inside, penetrating through the water vapor it will turn into a moisture at the junction with the wall, and promochat and spoil all the coverage.
However, the insulating material turns out to be in extreme conditions. Basement and the ground portion of the building is constantly in contact with soil, moistened by rain, melt water and spray from dripping from the roof - but to absorb this moisture insulation should not. The second factor - the load. Under the weight of the soil thermal insulation should not be crushed or destroyed. "Air", the strength and water resistance - these conflicting requirements at the same time! Plus longevity: their quality of thermal insulation material should be retained for several decades until the house will not go for the repair.
Not surprisingly, only in the last decade in domestic construction steel used materials that can meet them. First and foremost, it is extruded polystyrene. From other types of foam he distinguished closed, tight pores, so it does not absorb water and completely waterproof. In addition, he is strong enough and it can be stowed beneath the floor or parking lot because of additives - stabilizer - it serves several decades. Use it as follows. In the basement doing the horizontal waterproofing against the capillary rise of moisture and veneer placement outside foam, plaster it on the grid, or closed with a decorative basement panels. The plaster should not be in contact with moist soil, so below ground level it is covered with mastic asphalt, and gravel adjacent space.
For insulation of walls of cellars after the external waterproofing of their foam plates and paste over, hiding from the special soil drainage tiles and falling asleep underground. If the ground water are very high, the foam is actually converted into an additional waterproofing layer.
Another, paradoxically, a way to use extruded polystyrene - warming the basement around the perimeter of the house. From the previous it differs in that the plates are placed on the surface structures are not vertical and horizontal, underground. As a result, the winter cold, the soil is not frozen, the basement is losing less heat, reduces the strain of the soil caused by freezing it.
Engineering systems in the basement
Basement opens up many possibilities of use - to accommodate the business premises and equipment.
Garage - the most popular use of underground space. You only need to take care of drainage gratings at the gate, about qualitative ventilation to avoid breathing gasoline, and sound insulation, so as not to wake up to the roar of the engine.
Boiler room, boiler room. There is a boiler (boiler), regulating valves and instrumentation. In such a scheme can maximize fuel efficiency - no heat loss or long pipelines. Copybook structure allows significant savings.
Fan unit. In large modern cottages can not rely on a simple ventilation. The heart of the ventilation system - air preparation unit is assembled from individual service modules and is installed outside a residential area in the basement or the attic. There is total safety system and comfortable service and repair.
Electrical equipment. Basements usually occupy a large area and easily accessible for installation of electrical equipment. This is primarily an introductory panel, system backup power. There may also be the control panel alarm system. Room basement, especially those where the district heating and power, be sure to provide the fire sensors.
The water supply system. The most difficult, but at the same time comfortable option - a well for water supply, which bore directly next to the house or in the basement (at the end of work "zero cycle" - after the construction of basement walls, but before the construction of its floor). Hole carefully isolated from the sewage issue in case of emergency flooding. Above the hole, in the attic, in a separate insulated room have a water tank with capacity of 200-300 liters. Electric pump for water supply is installed in the basement, control is exercised from the utility room inside the house or out of the kitchen, with a manual starter or automatically. There, in the basement (or attic), we can pave the internal plumbing layout. Usually, pipes are left open. If you do a hidden pipe laying in indent in the ground installation of fittings and threaded connections arrange hatches for maintenance inspection and repair. Smashing around the cottage garden, the basement can add capacity to irrigate a total of 4.5 m3 per hectare plot 25-40. The water in the tank is typed at night without disturbing the owners, one day heated up and used the following evening.
Sauna in the basement - a very common solution, especially when close to the boiler to heat water and pump to a power outage. However, placing near the pool could cause problems. This is undesirable especially constructive - an excessive penetration of the pool relative to the sole foundation of a residential building is unacceptable. And the comfort of groundwater basins are lower than adjoined to the house where you can swim, enjoying the sun, air and beautiful views. Stationary pools should design and build special teams having a license. Violation of technology can lead to flooding of the basement at home, basement subsidence, loss of garden trees, etc.
When the device warm floor in the basement or ground floor of the rule - the closer placement to the ground, the more carefully should perform waterproofing and put thicker insulation layer (30-120 mm). To expand when heated floor is not pressed on the wall, between walls and concrete screeds provide a gap to fill with special insulating tape (thickness 5 mm) with a waterproofing film.
Pumps. Reasons for their placement in the basement at least two - the possibility of accidents or risk of natural disasters such as heavy rainfall, spring floods, floods and other surprises. In order not to detect in the spring basement, ground floor or cellar flooded, in a pit below floor level, establish a simple and compact drain pump, which may include remotely or automatically. Apply and fecal pumps to ensure the transfer of sewage from the basement or lower-lying areas in the existing sewers, sewage treatment or conventional septic system. These drainage pumps at a distance of 100 m horizontally, and if necessary raise them to a height of 5-7 m.
Features of "climate" of basements - high humidity and lack of light. So you should choose for their finishing materials bright colors, elaborate system of artificial lighting and ventilation, greater use of water-resistant tile and stone, "breathable" finishes. Plastic, wallpaper and fabrics - inappropriate materials for the basement. In extreme cases, acceptable wood paneling and wall paneling. If you use drywall, it is only water resistant. Good decision - creating falshokon (illuminated stained-glass windows). White tiles, white furniture and some colored spots make the basement room is much brighter and more comfortable.
However, the interior basement converted into a "place to live, deserves special attention and special articles.
Alexei Smertin, project manager for the company "Isover":
For warming areas such as basements and garages, is very convenient extruded polystyrene. From the usual polystyrene, popularly referred to as the foam, it features a closed cell structure, through which he has a five times higher strength, almost zero water absorption, low thermal conductivity. In addition, this material is ten times greater than the foam for durability. The combination of features makes extruded polystyrene insulation for optimum basement floor, walls, basement and teplizolyatsii foundation slab. It should be noted the convenience of this material in the assembly: the presence of rebated edge makes it easy to attach the elements and rough surface firmly grips with the concrete (for use as a permanent form) and the plastering compositions for finishing basement. The material is easily cut at different angles, so you can strengthen not only the insulation on the walls and ceiling, but also to complex architectural forms.