For more than a thousand years of history of Ukraine-Rus ', only two reforms were carried out in the interests of the Ukrainian people, the first in times of Kievan Rus' in Article IX-XI., Legalized the right to the land without the right of slavery, the second with short-term peaceful reign of Bogdan Khmelnitsky - all of the previous land invader (Rzeczpospolita) became the property of the Cossacks, peasants and Cossack one hundred percent. The remaining land reforms have occurred without the participation of the Ukrainian side: one hundred years after the death of B. Khmelnytsky 100% Ukrainian lands in the hands of Russian landowners and enslavement of free people always writes ZN.
Land reforms of the UPR in the 20 years of the twentieth century. also was destined to fail. But Stalin's violent introduction of land reform was unprecedented brutal, bloody and resolute.
Related article: About the nuances of payment for land acquired under the Real Estate
Any land reform, no matter how implemented, did not pass quietly. Once Ukraine gained independence, immediately arose primarily agrarian question, understood the first and second presidents of Ukraine is very simple: take everything away from collective farms and divided equally.
Incomplete reform in the agrarian sector of Ukraine became the signs of helplessness - to 2 hectares per capita allocated, but forgot that the looting of farms have lost all the equipment, all livestock, leaving their fate to the aging Ukrainian peasants without means of livelihood. Unless you can take nouveau nouveaux riches lease land for meager pay, and then nothing.
Farmers' movement, which was to have scored a fantastic pace with the increase in the number of farms, barely surviving because of the exorbitant taxes, huge loans and predatory purchasing prices for agricultural products. And all this against the background of a permanent increase in the cost of fuel, seed, machinery, agricultural chemicals. Under this press hit and cooperative farms, owning 2-3 thousand hectares of arable land. However, we are increasing the muscles corporate estates with foreign capital. At minimum cost to maintain the fertility of the land and the active introduction into circulation of commercial crops (corn, sunflower, corn) they handle hundreds of thousands of hectares, providing intensive work only a small group of lucky-machine. After their detachment of fifty men can handle a season of ten thousand or more hectares of arable land.
Impoverished population over 20 years of independent Ukraine has not given birth to the middle class, which is a powerful factor in the creation of the state. After all, the richer people, the more stable state and the more he means is, the more assurance that the land will be owned by it of its people. But it is not meant to be.
Reading in his lecture to students of the National Agrarian University, the author put to the vote the question: "Who is behind the land reform?" Half - "for". "You are right" - my answer to these students. "Who is against?". Half - "against." "And you're right." The audience wonders, this can not be all right. A simple interpretation of the response as the world. Arguments "for": the land - the goods, the lack of land market impedes the development of the productive forces of agro - it is impossible to supply the latest equipment and technology, develop infrastructure and construction, you can not feel complete control, to carry out long-term measures to improve soil fertility. Casual workers take care of their own pocket, and about itself, not about the fate of future generations and the earth.
Arguments "against" complex and require thoughtful changes in legislation and its implementation, so as not to harm people and the State in achieving this goal. And this takes time and wisdom, and if you like, consolidating the views of various politicians to make the right decision. And today is not the time for implementation in the life of any, even the most progressive law on trafficking in the ground. Especially that the proposed draft law of Ukraine "On the land" can not claim infallibility, because it crossed the barriers that need to level for the normal functioning of the market.
Called the bill land market (although the ground we have one) is so far ahead of his time and is presented in this edition, after its entry into force, our earth will become a stranger to us, and the Ukrainian people will be more than her. Think about it: in the turnover of agricultural land that will be put up for auction, including land state, communal and private ownership of land and 10% of the stock. The subjects of the market, except for physical persons and legal entities of Ukraine, determined individuals who carry out forced (!) The implementation of land, foreign citizens and stateless persons, foreign legal entities and the state (Article 5). As soon as a mismatch. Indeed, on the one hand, representatives of foreign capital seems to be, and are subject to the land market and on the other - "they can not have owned agricultural land" (v. 15). Double standards give birth to a problem in the shadows and into speculative affair, but what to do with foreign capital, if the land is not sold?
The draft law includes no trade across the land in bulk, and the individual sections: for the western region - 110-180 ha for central and northern - 250-400 ha, south and east - 590-870 ha. It is easy to assume that the temptation in any way to increase hunk of land will occur systemically, and the following law for the sale of Ukrainian land is simply not needed. Especially in the draft law has loopholes for larger areas, not exceeding 30% of agricultural land, located in the region at the location of the property purchased land one or two citizens of Ukraine (Article 21).
The draft ignored the ecological approach to restrict access to nature protection strips along the river beds of large, medium and small rivers and their sources identified by the Land Code of Ukraine, to ban trade in the reserved fund of Ukraine, no preventive measures are defined for the sale of land with a slope of more than three degrees, is not set responsibility for the predatory use of land by the buyer in case of debilitating deployments.
And all the land sold at auction. It is easy to assume that the present owners and users may not know that their fields were in the wrong hands.
Citizens of Ukraine, as well as foreigners, and have reopened the possibility of land sales in the form of a tender for the construction of transport infrastructure, electricity and social infrastructure.
That's it. Land sold in Ukraine. A time to cast stones at our Ukrainian Cornfield ended: the land given over to the wolves, and the Ukrainian people - to the slaughter, because it disappears village, which has always been the talisman of our identity. Strangers do not need it ... And God forbid actually wait until the end of this law. Finally, there comes a time to gather stones for our blessed black soil, constituting nearly one third of the world's reserves. Our land - not the Klondike, and not oil-rich Arabian Peninsula. Indeed, there have been, or there is a complete natural resources. And fertility of our land forever, if it is prudently handle. If the predator, the degradation of land, together with the degradation of society are inevitable.
Grain yield 80 million tons even at the present scenario, the productive forces in Ukraine - not the limit, and this renewable resource will run indefinitely for the benefit of Ukraine. But it is necessary to leave the law at least a little loophole, like hunters on our land there is plenty, from all sides. Owner of the land should be the one who treats her.
That is why, before you take the law of Ukraine "On Land Market", you need to prepare for the pre-clear legislation that will provide Ukrainian society is legal, methodological and regulatory bases for such reform. In our opinion, bled dry and impoverished village in Ukraine are needed, above all, the economic reforms. The Law of Ukraine "On Cooperation" is outdated and does not apply to the part that would encourage farmers to pool their shares to local cooperatives. The state is not brought land reform to the end, lost the chance to retain a strong agricultural potential of the looting. If Soviet power was driving people and cattle farms in force, the modern rural co-operative must be created on the initiative from below. Combining units, farmers create cooperatives specializing in crop and livestock production.
However, the village now on its own will not be able to show a similar initiative - there is no initial capital. He must come to the aid of the state - it will ensure that cooperatives sponsored loans and subsidies. In Europe, subsidized agricultural sector, only in France for this purpose an annual allocation of more than 5 billion euros, and we need for the establishment of the village twice that amount. We do not know where to get the money? It is known that at Euro 2012 spent about 80 billion UAH. So why, mobilizing the spiritual and physical strength of the nation, not to find the same means to revive the agricultural sector of Ukraine?
In the process of unfinished land reform and the accumulation of seed capital in the countryside should develop and adopt a series of laws that will determine the economic and environmental security in terrestrial ecosystems. It is an urgent need to develop, in particular, the Law of Ukraine on agriculture, which would have streamlined the management on arable land, would suspend the monopoly of commercial crops and would require under the stick to maintain soil fertility and whip - responsible for their degradation. However, you must re-examine thoroughly the land of Ukraine with the use of modern intelligence, computers and satellite communications, as well as to conduct mass agrochemical survey of lands as being in treatment, and not processed. This will allow for a scientific basis to make their inventory and ensure a fair price for the future of the land market.
Appropriate to base the environmental component is not on a territorial approach with respect to landscape (rural, field, forest, meadows, etc.), and at the basin, where the basic taxonomic unit is taken as a small river basin of the whole organism of any agro-ecosystem. The realization of this truth will provide the scientific process of sequential restoration of small rivers, which have about 63 thousand, and considering more than 15 thousand of their killed watercourses due to plowing of the total Ukrainian lands and unreasonable water amelioration in the twentieth century. All the more so that Ukraine is ready to to begin to fulfill nature restoring function.
Back in the 80s of XX century. widely adopted contour farming, land reclamation (CMH) that led to the division of farmland into three technology groups: the first - the flat land with a slope of three degrees, which were all forms of arable farming, the second - the land with a slope of five degrees, which was carried out conservation tillage, and the third group - the land with a slope of more than five degrees, to be tinned and zalesneniyu. Based on the principles of the CMH, the seizure of arable to be 8.6 million hectares of land with their transfer in natural grasslands and under zalesnenie. This is quite true, as plowed agricultural land have the highest in the world - 82%.
Recommendations Minagroprompolitiki and NSC "Institute of Agriculture Naan" of the mechanism of removal of intensive treatment of low productivity of land developed in 2000. As CMH plains and sloping lands system of gullies and ravines, and it fits well into the ideology of rehabilitation of basins of small rivers. Therefore, before defining the market relations in land sales, it is necessary to resolve the mechanism of its withdrawal from treatment. If you will soon be adopted Law of Ukraine "On the land," contour-reclamation arrangement will remain forever impossible any such land will have to buy again.
Therefore, when approaching the land market should adopt laws of Ukraine "On restoration of small rivers," "On the establishment of land relations in the process of rehabilitation of basins of small rivers", which will be discussed separately on the contour-melioration of their arrangement.
The adoption of appropriate laws, develop a regulatory framework for their implementation are possible with their clear and operational funding. With this in mind, creating a single mortgage of the land bank of Ukraine - on time and due to the fact that it has to do all payments for the land allocations to environmental funds, loans with the purpose of agriculture and for nature work.
Implementation of these projects is impossible without the involvement of research and educational institutions that are barely surviving because of lack of money and cut off from the manufacturer is not their fault - because he was too poor. Only the scientific support for the restoration of regenerative agriculture and small rivers will create conditions for effective development of advanced technologies and bring science to the main path of development.
Need for a law of Ukraine "On the ground" is maturing and is becoming urgent. But the desire to "buy-sell" in the case of hasty sketch of his incarnations over so many stones on the Ukrainian Niwa, rake debris that have for many generations. Truth said a wise man: "If you can not do good, then at least do not do evil."
Earlier, we wrote about how much they sell land near Kiev.