Today, several countries in Europe and America began to form a new perspective on the nature of mass housing. Modern technologies have opened the possibility of building housing on the one hand, provide you with a decent life, but on the other - radically reducing their negative impact on the environment. Houses began to appear a new type, who called ecological, or eco-houses.
The first experimental samples of such homes have aroused great interest from the public and the media. In Holland, the so-called "House of the Future" for 5 years, 2.5 million people attended. And in a pilot energy-efficient home in Freiburg professionals are faced with increased energy consumption due to the pilgrimage to the house of television cameramen.
Eco House is an integrated-effective individual or blocked comfortable house with land, which is the most resource efficient, low-waste, healthy and not aggressive towards the environment. All these qualities he possesses not only as a separately taken, but the system - with all utilities and service of its production systems, which is achieved using small autonomous or collective life-support systems engineering and rational design of building homes.
Supporters of a healthy lifestyle, and various types of creative expression, the revival of handicrafts, the environmentalists will find all the directions such an ideal home. As integrated-efficient house has an environmental object types.
This is, firstly, the energy-saving, and secondly, energoavtonomny house. Since most of the building energy lost as heat, the first condition for creating save energy at home - to make these losses are minimal. Currently, there are many means to reduce heat loss at home so that in temperate climates, it will not need heating. Ecology and Real Estate
This can be achieved by using new construction technologies and materials with high thermal insulation properties. This, for example, porous ceramic, brick, insulation from penoplastmassy, porous plaster from a mixture of gypsum, lime, cement and water. In recent years become popular with a transparent wall insulation, which well captures the sun's heat and transfer it into buildings and new construction windows with sufficiently high resistance to heat transfer.
Partially reduce the heat loss is possible with complex architectural composite events. This may be giving the house rounded forms, the selection inside the building-heat the buffer zone, protecting the building from prevailing cold winds by planting trees, etc. Thus, power consumption can be reduced by 20-30%.
Heat loss by ventilation can also be reduced by the use of artificial lumped supply and exhaust systems with heat exchangers or heat pumps.
Energoavtonomny home can meet all its energy needs from renewable sources, ie using solar and wind energy. For converting solar radiation into heat, the thermal collectors of different designs. Their efficiency is quite high: up to 60% or more. Placing solar collectors on the least shaded parts of the house.
Compensate for the lack of solar energy can wind, the more so because in many regions it has a winter maximum. In some areas, wind resources are so large that they can meet the needs of homes with an excess of selling the surplus in the external network. And examples of such houses energoizbytochnyh exporting energy already exist.
Technically more difficult task is still accumulating energy. Greatest importance and difficulty is the creation of seasonal batteries, which are required to preserve energy for a few months to ensure that the winter peak consumption. Today, the most promising way of long-term preservation of energy in the house is its accumulation in the form of hydrogen, obtained by hydrolysis of water, metal hydride battery for later conversion into electricity and heat. In addition to the relatively low cost, metal hydride batteries have a low explosion hazard and low volume.
Resource-saving and low-emission house
Efficient use of water resources - one of the most pressing problems, and solves it Ecohouse primarily due to economical household processes and the ecology and water-saving plumbing fixtures real estate that reduces water consumption by several times. Then it becomes a real water eco-houses on individual or collective sources. In addition, there is no need to clean up all the water to drinking standard - depending on the uses of it can be fed into the house with varying degrees of purification.
Effective way to restore soil fertility while reducing the amount of household waste are composting toilets. Promising for resource efficient building composting toilets, which are inclined chamber for composting, which is an accelerated process peregnivaniya organic residues. Through a separate hole in the bio-toilet may be disposed of kitchen waste and crop residues. In the presence of the home installation of wastewater treatment sludge, produced in it, may also be disposed of in toilets.
Toilet anhydrous (this order of magnitude reduces the total water consumption in the home), it has no moving parts, consumes no energy. Sanitary safety of his witnessed the Swedish Ministry of Health. Once in 1,5-2 years through a special hatch from toilets climbs ready to use concentrated fertilizer.
The problem of sewage Ecohouse decides by individual stokoochistnyh facilities where sewage cleaned up their suitability for irrigation and are used in houses adjoining the site. Effective means of further purification can also be a special biological ponds and playgrounds.
Residential homes are also sources of a huge number of solid waste, most of which can be used as secondary raw materials. To do this, eco-houses are special rooms for primary treatment, separate collection and safe storage of waste. Sanitary safety in the home storage of household waste between periodic its delivery will be provided, inter alia, the lack of them capable of rotting organic matter, which is released into the bio-toilet. Thus, the Eco-house, without polluting the environment, it becomes practically without waste.
For lovers of organic food Eco-house would provide greater opportunities for employment as a crop in the house (greenhouse, greenhouse), and in the surrounding area (garden, kitchen garden). Now developed a lot of intensive rearing of agricultural biotechnology (including a minimum area), so that a 6 hectare site can harvest that can feed 20 people.
Thus, the Eco-house may be mikrofermoy. Furthermore, the presence of green houses adjoining areas will improve the quality of the environment and will save the town square at the expense of some reduction of green space for general use.
The best building materials for Green Buildings are the materials of biogenic origin - wood, straw and other plant material, unfired gruntobloki etc. Less preferred clay brick, soft rocks of sedimentary origin. But concrete, stone with crystal components, and various plastics for better opportunities and real estate izbegat.Ekologiya
Eco House - is necessarily a healthy home, where the minimized use of chemical and synthetic drugs and materials. Therefore, the interior space and furniture should not contain plastics, synthetic and multicomponent materials that are sources of harmful effects inside the house. Many of the insecticides and pesticides have also successfully replaced biologics and ancient folk remedies. For example, in Ukraine in the village of Kamenka Ostrog region Rivne region have constructed two-story house, where the basic building blocks are the bales of rye straw.
Its owners have built a house for 6 months. Now here are finishing work, installation of sanitary equipment.
Foundation of the house is wood frame. Then - nested straw bales. From the middle of the wall "protection" sheetrock. In addition, housing that is environmentally friendly, a family that built it, and still pretty spun out. Bale of straw is 6 hryvnia. He replaces 80 bricks.
Experience family-initiator of the construction of housing concerned local residents. They also plan to use it.
Thanks to modern resource-saving technology, which reduces the "pressure" on the surrounding natural systems, environmental building can harmoniously blend into the landscape. Like a living creature, it stores energy in the summer, due to which there is in the winter months, he, like plants, have the ability to use solar energy.
Green Buildings dependence on natural infrastructure (solar, wind, etc., which can not be deactivated) ensures its resistance to technological disasters. Due to high technical equipment Ecohouse provides favorable conditions for creative activities. Here, people can be their own architect, designer, builder, designer, farmer. For a child living in a home can be, among other things, natural and environmental technical university.
Some sociologists believe that the eco-housing will help to reduce social dependency and infantilism, promote greater solidarity of family members in sharing housework.
At the present time in different countries carried out many projects for the construction of high buildings. Already there are houses of all grades of energy efficiency, including zero energy homes as well as energoizbytochnye. A house built for himself in northern Sweden engineer olefins Ecology and Real Estate Tegistrom. This two-storey house of 120 m2. Thickness of the insulating material of walls, 24 cm, the windows have triple glazing. In the system of forced ventilation is a heat exchanger. The house temperature is maintained at 23 ° C.
The house is located in an area with strong winds, so the main source of energy is a wind generator mounted on a mast height of 22 m. It produces annually about 100 MWh. Energy is stored in a week teplovodyanom battery capacity of 5 m3 and iron-titanium metal hydride hydrogen accumulator. Hydrogen is produced polymer hydrolyser of water with an efficiency of 35-40% for hydrogen. All the power house for the year is 10 MW / hour.
Surplus energy enough to travel on a commercial vehicle with a SAAB engine reworked to hydrogen fuel. In the presence of electric cookers family prefers to cook on the gas (with a catalyst suppresses the formation of oxides of nitrogen), powered by a hydrogen battery.
Home zero energy for the average European conditions some firms have already been developed in production.
We have, unfortunately, due to financial constraints and lack of adequate government support programs, there is no building energy efficient homes, but homes in transition are already trying to build.