As is known, even in Soviet times, Ukraine was formed system of shelter, which consisted in the fact that urban dwellers have to live in the city and rural - in the village. It is this system was the basis for the government's housing policy, as well as the basis for legislation on the withdrawal of land plots to citizens for construction of residential houses.
However, holding in our country, a large-scale land reform, adoption of the institute of private ownership of land and rising incomes of the working population of some urban residents began to bind their own housing problem solutions to the construction of a residential building outside the city, which could be permanent residence and quickly reach to the city.
Related article: In the Kiev region launched a new project cottageCottage villages, cottage villages - is heard everywhere.
What is it, cottage villages?
Cottage village as a phenomenon appeared on the Ukrainian urban scene relatively recently, namely, when it became possible to purchase land in large quantities. Country estates, regardless of whether they reside permanently, or just come once every few months, has not yet seen in Ukraine as a full house. This type of building does not become the Ukrainian mentality, and an inadequate understanding of the masses as a norm. Cottages are the object of luxury, if so decided to have them, then the maximum size, the richest and possibly not one. That is, in any case, a cottage in Ukraine today is a luxury villa. Moreover, to issue cottage for giving very profitable both owners and developers.
What is a cottage community (KG?) Should begin with the fact that the main sign and sign KG - simultaneous or almost simultaneous construction of all houses in it. The main thing that the towns do not build gradually, but immediately, embodying a holistic architectural design. A draft, acquired land, built a complex of buildings and sold. Often there is a problem, building a CG, the developer does not take into account the environment.
Despite popular perceptions, CT are not built by those who will live in them, and specialized professional construction companies. Construction of small towns - a powerful industry, a system that begins with the receipt of large areas and ends with an organized sale of houses. There is an entire business-sphere, which is engaged in the construction of towns.
Repeatedly we have heard from owners of cottages several years ago the complaint: "I bought five years ago, a cottage by the river ... 100 meters to the water ... and now before my windows put a fence and build a new town "or" I bought a house in the woods ... and there now and there is no timber - all built up. And what do you think are clever? After the construction of houses - it's business. And selling to you today with a beach cottage, or cabin in the woods tomorrow no one hesitate to build up and the beach and forest with new estates and sell them to new owners. At this, many "are", but it must be understood and that the victim marketing - this is normal for business. A construction of cottages, among other things - it is extremely profitable. After the construction of houses at a small town that will be sold later for 150,000 U.S. dollars spent no more than 70 000 and in major metropolitan areas, houses are selling 200 000 USD Consequently, the profit is evident. Hence the neglect of the people and the means of bribes, etc. There are even cases where wealthy citizens bought illegally constructed houses on the river ... but for several years before their houses namivaly artificial extension of the coast, surrounded by his fence and started construction.
The main shortcoming, defect or distress KG - their isolation from the outside world. Or rather, the fact that they are surrounded by fences. In fact, except the owners of cottages, one to go to the town can not. In principle, anyone that is not necessary. But the problem is that, similarly, one can not simply pass through it, to overcome it. Often, KG, along the roadway, overlapping the path to the forest.
To attract and retain buyers, investors should be aware that the first 20-30% of the objects he will build at its own expense, and consequently, these costs should be included in a business plan before the start of active sales. This allows you to move the project from their seats. A very important issue to be determined in the planning of the project the town is also the level of readiness for surrender their houses to the buyer. We should not forget that the future homeowner should be able to realize their individuality and imagination.
Draft camp will privlekatenee if facades cottages odinakoyvye use of colors, as well as perform external decoration and roof of the same materials. The only style must be maintained and in the design of fences, yards, streets, drainage and rainwater systems. One of the factors that largely determine the attractiveness of the town, are landscape characteristics. Everyone likes the woods, lake, an interesting landscape, but can not find them anywhere.
Despite the fact that the forecast is something in our state is a thankless task, it is possible with sufficient confidence to assume a further increase of interest to correctly plan and implement a cottage small towns around the city. The rapid growth of prices for apartments in gradually declines of the consumer to purchase or build their own holiday home. Gradually change the level of culture and psychology of the middle class.
What can an architect?
The current construction regulations of Ukraine did not give a definition of "cottage", "cottage town (village)". On the typology can be identified, for example, residential area in the countryside, manor, individually or low-rise (up to 9 storeys) buildings in the cities, for which there are certain rules of design. Thus, when creating a cottage small towns have to be guided by "averaged" regulations, including the determination of the density of buildings and the calculation of infrastructure.
Architects recognize that the design cottage - it is not only time consuming, but also it does not produce the expected dividends or in the material, nor in moral terms. Often, after making preliminary design customer, selecting a few typical designs of cottages, dozakazyvaet object already own.
Still, the main work falls on the shoulders of the architect. Moreover, he deals not only with the creation of architectural appearance and layout of individual houses, but also develops space-planning and conceptual solution of the whole town. His duties include: general zoning, location of infrastructure, distribution of housing in the classes, if such a need.
Part of the territory occupied by residential buildings, can be compared with that which is given under the objects of social infrastructure. For cottage community should be comfortable in social terms - to have children and sports grounds, recreation and commerce, parking facilities, checkpoint, and so on.
The architect is obliged to calculate the number and parameters of all objects of service, based on the number of residents, as well as provide transport scheme - to plan an entry group separately for residents and their guests and service of transport, if such a plan.
At the initial stage of the project involved the creation and specialists landshaftniki.
Of course, the architect and recommends specific building materials, which will give better overall architectural design and artistic vision - if any, of course.
The experience of the first towns appeared ten years ago, near Kiev, shows that the fundamental error when they are created is one of not a single concept - as the architectural and planning, and Spatial Planning. Evaluating the level of new projects proposed for the cottage real estate market, we can note the clear progress - is becoming increasingly rare inexpressive standard building in the complete absence of infrastructure. With the advent of competition, the initiator of the creation of a new cottage knew: that the buyer has opted for his project, he should have advantages over other objects.
To build in a certain place several residential buildings - does not mean to create a cottage community. Modern residential education must have at least a minimal infrastructure. A set of objects can be different depending on the type, size and location of the village. In principle, the demand for retail outlets, schools and kindergartens in this case is calculated similarly urban development, but on request this list could be expanded - for example, added a restaurant, a cafe, a small hotel or a sports complex with a sauna, a sauna and swimming pool.
Often taken as a basis for U.S. standards. For cottage community - this is largely an American version of life. Outlying areas of large cities of this country are so-called "community". These areas are not necessarily immune from crossing the fence, but always have some system of protection, maintenance and management. People pay for certain services: garbage collection, food delivery, and in case of any problems can contact the head of this community.
If potential tenants cottage - people are quite solvent and want to live in exclusive estates, design can only be an individual - each house and each plot. These towns are in Koncha Zaspa and Forest-Vodice, where most live business or political elite.
In this case, the future masters provide complete freedom, defining only the boundaries of land where they can build whatever they want. Of course, the builder or developer, the village has its own design and construction companies, which does custom orders.
If the cottage village built for the middle class, there are several ways to design a residential area. The developer can choose the 4-5 model projects and offer them the choice of future owners. This house can be built, in fact, identical and differ only finishing facades.
Otherwise, projects can vary in the degree of comfort: space, interior layout, interior. They are intended for customers of different social status.
Some very creative and energetic owners trying to improve the finished project, which can practically lead to the development of new, and therefore they will have to additionally pay for the work of design is actually an individual house. However, after budgeting, many agree that the original version was the most functional and rational, and go for a minimum of changes.
Living in different countries prefer different parts in the choice of housing. For example, Americans are focused on buying a house "turnkey". Usually they choose a home for three to five years, not more, and therefore not particularly questioning the interior layout, quality of construction materials, finishes, and more.
Ukrainians on housing fit more meticulously. Our countrymen have a habit to settle for a century - to create a "nest". And because they consider it necessary to write up a draft of the future at home and need something to complete the construction or redesign. It is obvious that our fellow citizens only gain experience in operating modern cottages. But even begin to understand that any attempt to improve the professional project created on the house, as a rule do not make it the best - rather the contrary.
According to architects practicing in the field of cottage construction, for a family of three or four people, enough of 100-150 m2 of living space. This is confirmed by personal experience. For example, a family of one of the designers live in a small two-story house (8x5 m), and no it's not crowded. And for the reception in the area has a spacious gazebo - a kind of banquet hall. In summer, it decided to spend time outdoors, and for the winter make temporary glazing and put heaters - becomes quite warm and comfortable.
Today, cottage towns are increasingly choosing projects storey houses. Complicated options with attic and basement floors, which often remain Thin become less popular. However, sometimes the owners do not have enough ancillary facilities, where we could arrange a sauna, gym, etc. But to get more space, not necessarily to do the basement, especially if the groundwater level is high. Smaller facilities can easily be placed on the site.
The days when people wanted to make maximum use of the land under the Homestead farm, is already behind us - today more emphasis on aesthetics and comfort.
(Direct link to the material required)