One of the most popular methods of Ukraine, and throughout the world today is a solid building. In monoliths erected industrial and residential buildings, social facilities, dams, power systems, tower. The manufacture of concrete for the monolithic building consumes more than half of global cement production.
The main advantage of this method - the efficient dissipation (scattering) energy fluctuations in buildings with wind loads. Another plus is that this method provides a very slight deformation of the houses.
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Nevertheless, there are downsides. For example, the danger of technological cracks in solid structures. Also, this method costs much more expensive than, say, frame construction, as the winter energy costs for heating the concrete make price-rise concreting several times higher. Nevertheless, about half of all buildings and structures in our country is built on monolithic technology.
This method is a favorite of modern construction. About 80% of all buildings in the world today is built on frame technology. It is based on the use of reinforced concrete structures of the new type. According to analysts' estimates, frame method for constructing high-rise buildings reduces the cost of construction works by about 30%. Accordingly, reducing the cost per square meter of housing. In addition, on frame method can build the house at any time, and without the use of assembly cranes.
Among the minuses - unpresentable look of houses built on this technology, and a limited lifespan. So, for example, brick houses are much longer than buildings constructed on frame method.
Construction of houses of bricks remains ageless classic. Among the valuable features of this versatile material should include a high fire protection, more durable brick construction impervious to biological factors and low impact of atmospheric phenomena. Brick has a constant shape and size. From this material spread wall thickness (in a half-brick in a brick and a half brick, etc.) receive different designs (arches, vaults). Also create architectural details (cornices, pilasters, traction, etc.) and decorations by the Russian, Flemish and American clutches. Bricks can also perform this important function as a communication of new buildings and existing buildings previously.
Recently, more and more brick associated with exclusivity and comfort. Still fashionable to build of brick town houses and cottages. This material is used to give the original form of multi-storey new building projects in prestigious urban areas.
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Do not brick so many minuses. However, the quality stuff is not cheap, the work requires great skill and a longer, compared with other methods, duration of erection of the building. Therefore, in view of modern construction time and cost savings often use some elements of masonry. For example, ornaments and towers made of bricks, which are combined with cheaper and fabricated materials.
Block construction is still relevant. But the standard heavy concrete is gradually losing its way. Are replaced by modern materials. In recent years in Ukraine are especially popular blocks of foam (or cellular concrete). This material is almost ageless and virtually eternal, not subject to time. Aerated concrete does not rot. Increased compressive strength can be used in the construction products with a lower volume weight, which increases the thermal resistance of the wall. Due to this the building of the foam can accumulate heat, thus reducing heating costs by 20-30%. Foam concrete has a relatively high ability to absorb sound. In operation it does not emit toxic substances and their ecology is second only to the tree. High geometric accuracy of the sizes of products allows for masonry blocks on the glue, to avoid thermal bridges in the wall and significantly reduce the thickness of the interior and exterior plaster. Weight of foam up to 87% less than the weight of standard concrete, which leads to significant savings on foundations.
About ten years ago, new construction panel made up 85% of all homes handed over builders. Today, the proportion of panel construction has dropped to 20%, a figure that continues to creep downward. Many experts believe that prefabricated houses - an anachronism, and live it remained on the force four to five years. Indeed, most construction companies prefer monolithic homes. Nevertheless, this method has both pros. Thus, the cost of construction of monolithic apartment house without external networks more expensive panel of almost 25%. Prefabricated house being built faster than monolithic in 1,5 times. However, the disadvantages of this method even more: panel buildings are characterized by an unattractive appearance. The walls are rapidly heated in the summer and just as quickly cooled down with the arrival of winter. Term of use - very limited. However, the panel housing remains the cheapest in the market, and that this figure allows him to stay until that afloat.