Cosednyaya Finland, since 2008, performing the European Union Council Directive on the energy performance of buildings mandatory for all EU member states, came close to a massive "green building". Objective - to improve the environment and increase the use of renewable energy sources.
After 2012, the EU countries en masse will be constructed "passive" houses, in 2015-2020 in the EU task is to build homes with "zero energy", and from 2025-th - "energy plus".
Pekka Vuorinen, Senior Advisor to the Association of Construction Industry of Finland, said: The main objective of the program, on the idea of the EU - to "save the climate." Along the way, resolved the issues of construction quality and durability of buildings and energy saving. In addition, many EU members, and often talk about social responsibility.
Now the European Union has stricter standards for "green building" - as of May 2010 has a new editorial guidelines. EPBD adjusted the plan, told Vuorinen: "On December 31, 2020, all new residential buildings must be zero energy balance, and public buildings - from January 1, 2019. Suomi preparing for an era of energosberezhniya: the spring of 2010 in Finland, established the Council for Green Building. While okolostroitelnye officials are busy choosing the system by which to evaluate the so-called "sustainable development" of the building (environmental, social, economic). According to Vuorinen, in Europe there are 252 rating, but they estimate only a part of the process, while necessary notag all positions lifecycle of the building, within 50-100 years, until its demolition. While such a tool in the construction industry Suomi there.
Meanwhile, Finnish Ministry of Environment is developing regulations "green building", which will take effect in two years. The regulations will include the consumption of energy - from production of building materials to the period of operation. The system takes into account the impact of construction material manufacturing on the environment (raw materials, energy consumption in the manufacturing process, emissions, impacts on the environment of the final product), is used in Finland now. Important point - reduce energy consumption during operation of the building.
Cherish the heat
Now Finland is popular construction of the so-called "passive" houses - the buildings, which is enough to power 20-30% of normal rates of energy consumption.
To build entire neighborhoods of homes, saving heat, needed a fundamentally different system that will collect any excess energy generated by enterprises, and use the same energy twice. For example, hot water - waste effluent production. Also developed teplosbergayuschie technology based on melting snow, a system that can use the difference in soil temperature, etc.
For "passive" houses of particular importance the energy supply system, as well as the quantity of consumed energy and efficiency of its use. According to the company Honka, the use of modern heating systems in conjunction with the integrity of the structure saves 35% of the heat. However, in some cases, savings on heating can reach 65%, says vice president of Honka Eino Heck. In particular, this applies to houses from the array (logs). Energy saving them 15% better just by retaining heat and solar energy by the material itself. 10-15% savings on heating using solar energy and use heat pumps. In addition, a certain percentage accounted for contemporary heaters, how to make a house almost sealed, as well as structural elements.
Heat - automatically
But, says CEO Jussi Fidelix Runton, the application of automatic control systems for buildings, reducing energy consumption is more significant - even in apartment buildings. In particular, in the old (unreconstructed) houses minimum energy savings - from 10% in some cases - up to 30%, and in the new house - up to 50%. Savings achieved by reducing the costs of ventilation and heating. The cost of installing the system in one apartment is about? 3 thousand (with no other systems): two thirds of the cost - of the program, a third - sensors and the box. Annual maintenance costs of 4% of the cost of the system. The cost of automating a two-storey house - about ? 10 thousand of apartments does not matter (average - 70, for example). Costs are kicking in 3-5 years. Payment, said Jussi Runton, is usually from savings on energy conservation.
Now obschedomovymi system is equipped with approximately half of new homes. In buildings ranging from 1 thousand square meters. Automatic meter installed is mandatory. And with this year's equipment will be installed in each apartment.
Solarium at home
From the construction of "passive" houses Finnish builders are preparing to go to the construction of homes with zero energy consumption. "Zero" houses have so far mainly the status of the exhibition of samples - as Project Luukku "developed at the Helsinki University of Aalto and has collected several awards at international exhibitions. Exhibition sample only uses solar energy and produces more of it than it consumes. Summer - saves a reserve (in the network, battery, or batteries not required). Sensors placed in the walls keep the temperature inside the premises 20-23 degrees. Besides solar panels provide energy efficiency wood panels, a specific profile of walls, insulation is cellulose based inside the panels. Estimated life at home - 30 years.
"The contract was signed, the company Lappone Houses in a couple of years, will launch the model in industrial production", - told the architect, professor Kimmo Lulukangas.
Target price in mass production -? 2600 per sqm. m. According to the Finnish standards - inexpensive. The house area will be 120-150 square meters. m
Required to cool
Close attention Finnish experts are paying today is not so much teplosberezheniya (solve this problem, apparently, for our neighbors obvious), and indoor air quality, its moisture content. The origin of the problems - tightness of the house, which arose as a result of the remarkable seals and heaters. According to a joint Finnish-German study, the optimum humidity in the house - 30-55%. At this temperature, the air contains less allergens and chemicals, viruses do not survive, said Eino Heck. For "hot Finnish guys" to the fore the problem of cooling air. Developed technologies that will heat the house in winter, summer - cool.
Such a system would operate, for example, in the first eco-friendly office building. Company LEMMINKAINEN ekoofisa implement a pilot project in Helsinki for the University and the Environmental Center of Helsinki - Viikki House. " Reducing energy consumption will be achieved by insulation of facades, low heat transfer coefficient (0,8 W / sq. M) of structural components and automatically reduce the multiplicity of air when the building is unoccupied.
The house will provide 25-30% of energy. On the roof will be installed four wind turbines and solar panels. Plus there is central heating. In addition, 25 geothermal wells drilled depth of 250 meters, which are covered with a stone ramp. In the summer heats up the ramp from the sun, warm water is pumped into the ground under the building, and in winter - is pumped into the heating system of the building. Area five-story building will be 6,791 square meters. m
These wells can not only heat the air, but its cool - respectively, in the summer. Next object - logistic center in the sieve - LEMMINKAINEN will build on a similar technology, but this time planned to drill 160 wells.
The first energy-efficient office is put into operation 30 June 2011.
Technologies for export
While in St. Petersburg, used someone else's, most often, the Scandinavian technology. And, mostly in low-rise construction, as in this segment operating expenses - in fact - are great. In particular, IP FPG ROSSTRO "one of the first promoted in St. Petersburg, the Austrian energy-efficient systems VELOX. Homes built on this technology, the cost of heating is reduced by 40%. Insulation boards and elements of SPU-based polyurethane offers in St. Petersburg, the Finnish concern SPU. Gaining the German system "TERMODOMA - monolithic reinforced concrete walls with concrete panel of expanded polystyrene blocks (thermal blocks). The cost of heating in a house in 3,5 times less than in the brick.
Energy-saving systems not only saves on heating, but also tend to significantly reduce construction time. Which should reduce the cost of the project. However, this is still only in Europe. Depending on what environmental certificate claiming the developer, appreciation is 1-5%. However, "green" residential project in Russia, according to the director for international relations of P? Yry Ero Koski, becomes more expensive by 10-15% - due to mechanical ventilation and extra insulation. The payback period should not be greater than with conventional construction, experts say, but sooner than 10 years of Russian consumers energy-efficient housing its costs are unlikely to discourage.
Factors affecting the efficiency:
84% - operation, technology
12% - construction materials
2% - other factors
Source: University of Helsinki Aalto
Energy consumption in Finland:
37% - Industry
38% - Building
17% - transport
4% - construction
4% - other
Source: Company P? Yry
Elena Zubov, BN.ru