Prirodnye fires, from which an abnormally hot summer, suffered a number of Russian regions, demonstrated that when choosing a site and building a house in the suburban village should not ignore the issue of fire safety. That in the future to minimize risks of fire, when buying land or homes should pay attention not only on the materials from which the house is built, but the land on which it is located, as well as several other factors.
First, the risk of fire increases at sites near the moors or marshes drained, and also directly to them. This soil is easy to determine with the naked eye, kopnuv it. Peat - light bulk substance, usually brown in color. Most peat soils in the Moscow region in Orekhovo-Zuevskaya, Shatura and Ramenskoye areas. At the same time they are almost not present in the northern and western suburbs. Another group of risk - areas in the fields with nekoshenymi perennial grasses or dead wood.
Requirements for the housing estates
With specific regard to housing, fire safety regulations for the towns of detailed and documented in a variety of instruments, in particular, snip 02/30/1997. Compliance with many of them are easily verified, even citizens who are not specialists in the field of engineering and surveying.
For example, buildings of the village should start no closer than 15 meters from the boundaries of a forest. Requirements for the width of streets and passages - 15 and 9 meters respectively.
Furthermore, if the village is located at more than 200 meters from the river, lake, pond or reservoir and on its territory there is no natural water in this village should be equipped with fire-fighting tank. Typically, an artificial pond with convenient access roads.
Requirements for tank volume: not less than 25 cubic feet with the number of sites within 300 plots.
According to snip 30/02/1997, cottage associations, including up to 300 garden plots, in order to fire must have portable pumps, with the number of sites from 301 to 1000 - Trailer pumps, with a quantity of more than 1000 - at least two trailers PUMPS ACCESORIES. To store PUMPS ACCESORIES necessarily construction of special facilities.
How to secure your site
Site owners who choose to build on it a house or a few buildings - a bath, a guest house and so on, too, should adhere to basic fire safety rules.
Distances between buildings and structures within a suburban area is not standardized. However, the SNIP is recommended to keep the distance between buildings on adjacent plots: at least 6 feet - between the stone buildings (as well as concrete, reinforced concrete and other buildings of noncombustible materials), not less than 8 feet - between buildings with wooden floors and coatings, secure and non-combustible hard inflammable materials, and not less than 15 feet - between the easily flammable wooden buildings.
Temporary structures should be located from other buildings and structures at a distance of not less than 15 meters.
Each Dwelling Unit recommended the installation capacity (barrels) of water. It is also desirable to have a ladder reaching to the roof and on the roof - a ladder that extends to the roof ridge. Must be serviceable in the country, dry chemical capacity of 10 liters, and in the village - a few sets of fire (hook, shovel, bucket, sand, water barrel with a capacity of 200 liters). A detailed list of appliances and fire fighting equipment can be found in "Rules of fire safety in the Russian Federation of December 14, 1993.
Also, do not be amiss to remember and fire alarm systems. Standards for fire safety, do not oblige the owner of a residential building height to 28 meters to set a system of automatic fire alarm system. However, many gardeners nonetheless establish such a system with output alarm on the security post on the remote control or at least on a personal mobile phone.
Cottagers necessarily be to monitor the safety harness. To do this, it is desirable to periodically check and, if necessary - repaired or replaced.
Fire Safety Rules shall be prohibited:
- Use damaged sockets;
- Wrap the bulbs and lamps with paper, cloth and other combustible materials;
- Use of electric heating appliances that do not have thermal protection devices;
- The use of homemade electric heaters.
When building a home is desirable to use fire-retardant impregnation. State fire retardant treatment (impregnation) should be checked at least twice a year.
Kerosene lamps, in turn, must be installed so that they are difficult to overturn it. Hanging kerosene lamps (lights) should be mounted and metal protective caps over the windows. The distance from the hood over the lamp or cap lamp to combustibles (nonflammable) structures overlap (ceiling) must withstand a minimum of 70 inches and up to the walls of combustible (nonflammable) material - at least 20 centimeters. Wall kerosene lamps (lights) should be provided for construction of reflectors and secure attachment to the wall.
Kerosene stove, kerosene stove and kerosene stoves to refuel in accordance with the instruction manual. Forbidden to charge these devices flammable liquids (including gasoline, solvents, alcohols).
Furnaces and other heating devices and systems before the heating season must be checked and repaired. Faulty system to use is not allowed. Also, the furnace must have Front cover sheet without the burnout and injury of at least 50`70 cm (on wood or other combustible materials from the floor).
Sweep chimneys and furnace soot necessary before and during the entire heating season, but at least:
· Once every three months for heating furnaces;
· Once every two months for furnaces and hearths for continuous operations;
· Once a month for cooking stoves and other continuous kilns (long) furnace.
The distance from the furnaces to the goods, shelving, cabinets, counters, cabinets and other equipment must be at least 0.7 meters, and from the flue openings - not less than 1.25 meters.
In attics all chimneys and walls, which are smoke-channels must be whitewashed.
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