Microclimate optimal for residential and public buildings in the warm seasons are: air temperature 20 - 25 " C, relative humidity 30 - 60%, air velocity is not more than 0,25 m / s during the cold season, these figures were respectively 20 - 22 " C, 30 - 45% and 0,1 - 0,15 m / sec. In this case, the temperature difference horizontally from the windows to the opposite wall should not exceed 2 " C, and the vertical - 1 " C per meter height of the room.
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However, if the warm season, the room temperature is determined mainly by the outdoor temperature, thermal insulation of walls, lighting the room in direct sunlight and the intensity of aeration, the cold spells, it depends mainly on the heating system. If the central water heating daily fluctuations of temperature in the dwelling shall not exceed 2 - 3 ° C, while the furnace - 4 - 6 ° C, regardless of ambient temperature fluctuations.
In reality, maintaining constant indoor temperature is complicated by the need for continued air, usually at the expense of fresh air from outside. As a result, the temperature difference at the window in the room may exceed the recommended rates.
Humidity depends on the heating system, and the type of ventilation. Raising the temperature in the room, especially in winter, usually accompanied by a decrease in humidity. In this case, it is recommended to use electric humidifiers, which not only increase the moisture content in the atmosphere of the room, and saturate it negatively charged particles. In the absence of a humidifier can be used, for example, conventional photographic plate or cuvette: pour water into them and put under central heating radiators. With furnace heating to raise the humidity in the room will help a wet towel, hung near the stove. Optimum temperature and humidity provides only air conditioning. Violation of the temperature and humidity conditions in the premises entail the appearance of mold, which leads to deleterious effects on the human body.
Thermal state of man, and hence its efficiency depends on the effects of a number of microclimate parameters:
* Air temperature;
* Surface temperatures;
* Relative humidity;
* Air velocity;
* Intensity of thermal radiation.
In a study of the microclimate all of these indicators are detected by special equipment.
Effect of microclimate on the human condition
Human activity is accompanied by a continuous heat release into the environment. Its amount depends on the degree of physical stress (energy) in certain climatic conditions. In order to physiological processes in the body occurs normally released by body heat must fully discharge into the environment. Violation of the heat balance can lead to overheating or overcooling of the organism and, consequently, to impairment, fatigue, loss of consciousness and the heat death.