Yuri Shkodovsky, rector of the Kharkiv State Technical University of Construction and Architecture reported on the status of the construction industry.
We were ahead of the rest
As is known, the Soviet Union on indicators of housing has always been one of the first places in the world. After the abolition of private ownership of the property in 1918 in the cities was the mass migration of workers in the homes of the bourgeoisie and were spontaneously generated at home commune (working at home).
Having them in the free use of the workers here have created self-governing bodies, but know that not only the maintenance of the building, but also organized the brownies communal institutions - common kitchens, dining rooms, kindergartens, nurseries, red corners, libraries, reading rooms, laundry service, etc. All of these institutions, as well as cleaning and repair of common areas, carried out by the tenants on a voluntary basis.
The problem of "socialist settlement was one of the main problems the project search for architects during the First Five-Year Plan (1928-1932 years). Then, during the discussion of urban planning were discussed at all levels - from the living cell to the settlement system on a national scale. Almost everyone agrees that the State with the planned economy needed a unified system of settlement. However, many advocated the abandonment of family apartments in favor of the development of collective forms of life.
There is nothing more permanent than a temporary
The greatest attention of architects attracted two tasks - implementing the collectivist way of life and began the liberation of women from the household. In its decision relied on one village, commune, consisting of individual houses and public buildings, others - to complete the house-commune with the socialization of life.
There was also a third viewpoint, which consisted in the fact that among the workers is still strong in family psychology, it is necessary to create a transitional home - "home-groups" with preservation of the family environment.
But, ultimately, the life of the Communards had to be completely unified, devoid of any individuality. Regulate not only the schedule of movement of residents, but also at lunch, rest, even sleep. Commands are executed by radio signals.
In the first half of 1920 a wave of enthusiasm a form of organization of life swept through the student residence of many cities. Commune was regarded as a "factory new man, and every person who entered into the youth commune tried etching the features of the" old "way of life. By the way, on a voluntary basis in such a "family" used to live 12.10 persons of both sexes. The farm was carried out jointly.
Home and is called - "House Metal", "House food technologist", "House of specialists" and so forth to build houses and cooperatives. In contrast to former tenements, and in contrast to the bourgeois style, new proletarian housing erected very sparingly. For him, brick factories began to produce a new brick, which by its characteristics were significantly worse than the "old regime".
Projects each of the houses have been individually, since that time has not yet been developed typical section. But in almost all new houses flats immediately became communal - one room per family, with low ceilings, hardwood floors, stove heating. Such monotonous "box" could strike the imagination is it that only the pace of construction. But by mid-1930 as a whole formed the creative concept of "Stalin's empire" - focus on sverhmonumentalnuyu classics and huge shape of buildings.
After the war the barracks-type building constructed as a temporary shelter. Respectively, and the attitude to build a reflection of this trend: the house was built without any serious calculations of materials at hand (usually made of brick homes destroyed). At the same time save on everything, including on a solution for building walls. Interior walls and ceilings were made of wood and not enough fat. As an exception - "Stalin's home." Apartments in them features a large area, high ceilings and spacious porches. In "Stalin" The red, white, brick, concrete or composite floors.
At one time the architecture of the postwar years continued to styles of the prewar period. In the major forms of widely used decorative plastic with a rather heavy-handed Soviet symbols. These are the South Station building, a large house with a tower on the square of the Soviet Ukraine, a former regional committee of the Communist Party and others. Similar architectural appearance of acquired and many public buildings after their restoration - National University of Karazin Hotel, Kiev, Central Department Store.
"Khruschevkas" like a house with no frills
The problem was that all of these homes are expensive and built for a long time, so that the state simply could not keep up to meet the housing needs of the rapidly growing urban population. Often had to turn the new homes for workers in a communal apartment, settling in an apartment on two or three families. The idea of "industrial development" was simple: Why build houses on individual projects if we can raise tens of thousands of similar apartment buildings for only a few drawings?
And in order to minimize construction time and cost, it was decided to collect them from building blocks, panels and boards. Although these houses were puritanical simplicity and relatively small size of apartments, for "social housing" is not considered a drawback. Similar projects in the 1930's emerged in many countries, but before all of them started to implement Hitler's Germany. Preimages "Khrushchev" appeared in 1948, when Moscow and Leningrad was erected several "model" homes, not unlike the spacious "stalinok.
However, the first in the country had to rebuild the war-ravaged economy, and then build plants to produce building materials, so the start of the industrial construction postponed for a few years. In the mid 50-ies, first secretary of the CPSU, Nikita Khrushchev visited France and saw a strong "social" home-cage homes for workers and migrants.
Returning home, he indignantly attacked the Soviet architects who offered, in his opinion, too luxurious apartments. In the heat of the struggle against "excesses" were told to remove and replace the attic gable roof of a soft roof, to minimize the width of stairways and landings sizes, to remove any hint of a decor. Even the wooden doors Khrushchev ordered replaced by plywood.
Ceilings in apartments dropped to 2.45 meters, in order to save the area cleaned closets, kitchens reduced to 5-6 squares. Zaltzman shrunk to Piglet, which barely put two people entered. Removing the "extra lanes", have created a combined room-type baby's loose jacket "and" lining ". Own room shrunk to 15-18 (living room) and 9-12 (bedroom) squares. The most problematic decision was to combine bathrooms, in order to save all of the same area.
But the crisis in housing has been overcome, the opportunity to meet the demand for urban housing. The reforms of Khrushchev finally allowed to navigate in posemeynoe accommodation in apartments and begin the resettlement of communal apartments, which accounted for 90 percent. housing stock. By the end of 50's in many cities of the panel of five-storey homes rose whole neighborhoods of houses series "K-7. At the same aesthetic appearance of the "Khrushchev was minimized and became a primitive, and the quality of construction left to wait for the best. But people were happy when we moved into these apartments from the communal.
In 1959, the Kharkiv branch Giprograd was instructed to make a new master plan of Kharkov. In accordance with this plan, the city was divided into eight planning areas were planned new areas of mass housing to free territories in the form of large housing estates. Began building Pavlova Fields Selection Station (Zone A) and Ordzhonikidze district. At the same time changed the nature of development.
Instead, the layout used microzoning. System opened up the facade of building along the street has spread free planning. Architecture of residential and public buildings in those years are very modest. But otherwise it could not be at a gigantic scale plant construction. In the years 1963-1965 have been drafted detailed planning areas Levada Uprising Square and the prospectus of Gagarin. But because of the need for demolition of old housing, these areas could not solve the problem of a sharp increase in living space.
Complicated and transportation problems. Radial planning structure of the city hampered the development of transport. In 1964 Harkovproekt developed technical and economic basis for the development of Kharkiv until 1980. And this plan is translated into practice - industrial enterprises located in small and medium-sized cities in the region, Kharkiv regional development has gone into the north-west, north-eastern and south-easterly direction, and new housing construction was carried out mainly on the free territories.
Have been built up area "B" Selection Station and Saltovskiy residential area. Alexeyev completes the residential area, construction on Cold Mountain, near Rohan ... In the nine-storey houses in the "cell" was already an elevator, garbage disposal and a more spacious room. Although aesthetically beautiful appearance and they did not shine.
We are leaving the suburbs
In the construction of apartment buildings stereotype-emptive use of precast concrete and very rare - a monolithic construction. Today it is obvious that the current alternatives, "monolith" no.
At least in terms of cost. While the vitality of the construction of reinforced concrete supported by "pressure" created in the past years, a huge industrial base. Most of us live in antiekologichnyh homes. And our future - "environmental housing". It should become closer to nature, healthier, more environmentally friendly, convenient, safe, comfortable and certainly more beautiful. The main thing here - building materials.
In terms of impact on health can be arranged in the following sequence. The least desirable as a structural material metals, the next group consists of concrete, stones with crystal components, glass and various plastics. More preferred clay brick, soft rocks of sedimentary origin. And the best are the materials of biogenic origin - wood, straw and other plant material, unfired gruntobloki.
Today, people in the know will not chase apartments on the upper floors of skyscrapers in downtown. The more so because such houses are hard to operate, easy to provide engineering infrastructure. The prospect of countryside housing, houses, located in the green zone, close to rivers or lakes.
The path to such trends have already passed all the civilized nations of the world. With regard to affordable apartments, "social" housing, the state should find mechanisms to reduce the cost of its maximum. And architects - to develop relevant projects. Given the fact that people here should be comfortable - relatively high ceilings, a relatively spacious kitchen, etc. Something similar has already built a "Zhilstroy-1" near the area of the Rebellion.