Man spends 18 to 21 hours in the room and at best 6 hours - the fresh air. Only a good environmental conditions in the apartment and in the workplace can be a reliable guarantee of health. Many people most of the day live in a closed cycle "housing - office - housing, so the subject of quality and comfort of the premises over the years has become more acute - and especially with the growth of material welfare.
Confirmation of this - all the growing desire of the inhabitants of cities to move to permanent residence in the suburbs, visiting the city only for work and entertainment.
Moving is often considered sufficient solution to ensure environmentally sound living space, and the choice of future residence of people is usually limited to a cursory inspection of the area in which shall be certified in the presence of forest and lake, as well as the remoteness of the cottage from industry and major transport arteries. Explaining this situation, many experts refer to the low level of education on issues of environmental and sanitary-hygienic safety. However, this is not true. Today, the vast majority of people have a level of knowledge sufficient to properly raise issues related to the environment of living space. For example, they understand that when choosing a site for cottage building is important not only its appearance but also other priority settings, such as:
* Ecological history of grounds: perhaps a few decades ago at his burial place is solid waste or landfill organochlorine agricultural products;
* Information on the environmental map of the area that will get an idea about the state of the environment, in particular on the existing air pollution, water, soil, and sources of such pollution (landfill, burial sites, hazardous plants, trans tailors underpasses).
In addition, people are well aware of the possibility of objects with errors in the calculations and planning, constructed with violations of technology construction and use of counterfeit or substandard construction and finishing materials.
These aspects form an unfavorable internal environment, resulting in a chemical and / or bacteriological contamination of indoor air, elevated levels of radiation, electromagnetic radiation and noise, the presence of dangerous radio frequencies. On the harm caused by each of these factors, the human body, there are many materials available. Suffice it to say that air pollution due to use of substandard building materials contributes to the development of allergies, respiratory and cardiovascular systems, weakened immunity.
Certainly, these factors can equally be present in a city apartment and office building, located within the boundaries of the metropolis. Unfortunately, there is a perception that if an office or apartment is located in the city, and especially near the industrial zone, to solve the problems of ecological safety of his thinking is useless. Practice shows, however, that this is not the case. After localization vnutrizhilischnyh (office) risk areas can be a number of inexpensive and high-impact, significantly reducing the negative impact of both external and internal sources of environmental pollution.
It is well known that when an object is selected country real estate Buyer's Guide loyalty and professionalism of the developer, the legal aspects of buying a house and land availability and development there is infrastructure and communications. However, we wish to draw attention also to the quality of housing in the long term, which is largely due to the following factors:
1. Environmental condition of the land on which the facility is located.
2. Correctness of design decisions, including assessing the impact of the residential complex (cottage, village, etc.), which includes an object on the environment.
3. Quality of construction and applied materials.
Design documentation designer is responsible for ensuring environmental safety of the project, environmental protection and rational use of natural resources according to the GOS A.2.21. Minimum package of documents certifying the environmental condition of the site should include:
• Finally, the sanitary-epidemiological examination of the surface (in the presence of open water) and groundwater contamination by chemical and hydro biological parameters. Examination to determine the degree of pollution in an indirect way to identify sources of possible contamination (eg, drain drainage roads, landfill waste, farmland, etc.), as well as to assess the risk to health from use of an open water body for recreational purposes;
• Finally, the sanitary-epidemiological examination of water main water source (wells, rural or urban centralized water supply system). In the cottage as a source of water is most often used well. The chemical composition of water from the wells is determined by the depth of the aquifer, but to use such water in its raw form is not recommended because of high salinity, high concentrations of iron, manganese, calcium, etc.;
• Finally, the radiation-hygienic survey the site for construction of (indicators of exposure dose of gamma radiation, the equivalent equilibrium volume activity of radon). Radiation-hygienic inspection to determine the level of radiation hazard area development for a decision on whether the purchase or construction of the territory of the property, as well as to determine the required properties radonozaschitnyh walling and develop appropriate technical solutions;
• Finally, the sanitary-epidemiological examination of the soil-site construction (when replacing natural soil imported - expert opinion of imported soil). The presence of heavy metals in soil at concentrations greater than allowable, agricultural chemicals (including organochlorines), pathogens, etc. imposes restrictions on the use of the soil in those or other purposes.
In addition to these documents, it is recommended to have information about:
1. Condition of air:
• Data from air monitoring. Monitoring is carried out the relevant services of the district, which form the statistical information about the state of atmospheric air;
• the location of industrial facilities and transport crossovers in relation to the wind rose. Toxic substances contained in industrial emissions and exhaust from road transport are distributed by air masses over long distances, settle on the ground, get into the groundwater and surface water;
2. Hydrogeological situation in the area:
• depth of groundwater, the presence of wetlands, the hydrologic regime of reservoirs (in the case of a determination on the part of the river or lake). For example, in reservoirs with low water exchange and a low degree of self-purification (closed basins with low velocity flow and a limited supply) may be stagnant, particularly the so-called "blooms" and the emergence of insects in summer;
3. Presence in the region or in its vicinity the following:
• Local treatment facilities agricultural facilities or localities. At these sites there is a risk of accidents and falling raw sewage into open water or groundwater;
• active and closed graves of various types (dumps and landfills municipal solid waste (up to age 150 years), burial grounds, cemeteries, etc.), storage or disposal of agricultural chemicals. At such sites for a long time there is a decomposition of the buried material to the formation of highly toxic substances. Due to the absence of measures to seal the burial takes place leaching of degradation products followed by hitting them in the soil, groundwater and surface water. Decomposition of organic material in the open dumping sites may also be accompanied by the formation of unpleasant odors.
Said information about the environmental condition of the land should be maintained construction project. As practice shows, the draft is technically simple, and objects of typical building, which include cottages, as a rule, there is no section of the EIA (impact assessment on environment): developers do not bother to gather information about the environmental aspects of the site and assessment of the degree of negative impact of construction on the environment. If we were to search for specific information on their own, appealing to local authorities, or looking for accredited laboratories that could conduct the necessary tests and measurements, you may encounter annoying obstacles, overcoming of which requires considerable effort and time.
Experienced professionals can help with the search for information on the environmental condition of the land, will make findings and recommendations based on existing information, and if there is a buyer's package of documents provided by the developer, to evaluate their credibility and will issue an opinion.
Alexander Malitsky, Svetlana Nesterenko