Eco-housing - a key to the future





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14.11.2010 00:00
Until relatively recently it was widely believed that if we want to avoid the damage caused to the environment, the alternative of life with modern amenities is to return to the caves. In other words environmental damage is justified as a necessary evil attendant civilization as inevitable cost of the usual level of amenities. Now it becomes clear that this view is outdated. Modern technologies have opened the possibility of a third way, which is possible to construct dwellings on the one hand for a worthy human life and on the other hand drastically reduce the negative impact on their environment. And, most importantly, this concerns not only and not so much direct impact on the environment of the housing as a complete, systematic effects on the environment throughout the living areas including engineering infrastructure and service sector of the economy. Even in ancient times it was seen an important, strategic role of housing:: "We are creating a home and then at home we create." Thus, housing is an important factor capable of significantly affect the decision all the more the growing global problems.
The present work is devoted to the problems emerging at the present time, the movement which aims to shift environmental dwellings. This broad topic requires consideration at different levels - the technical - issues relating to the construction and operation of individual houses, at the level of the living environment and settlements, including Cities and urban areas and at the global level. The author in this paper we attempt to conceptually consider all these issues.
TYPOLOGY OF HOUSING
house as a symbol of
The house is not just housing, but also an important symbol of earthly existence. From the Greek word Eicos - the house there was a name of ecology. From the Latin domus in different European languages were formed such basic concepts as ownership, possession, power, and sovereign right. House is the most common words in the Bible. Known expression: "We create our own home and then they create us." It could be no great exaggeration to paraphrase as follows: "We create our own home, and then they shape our world."
Over the past half century industrial era drastically changed the nature of mass housing, which could not Relevant to affect the way kkulture, mass psychology, socio-economic relations, etc. In order to understand the nature of these changes should be compared to examine the most general properties of the dwellings of different ages, namely, such as their interaction with the natural environment, dependence on external technical systems, the degree of livability and sanitation, etc.
Pre-industrial housing
Typical housing pre-industrial era was a low-rise house with land, with stove, or close to the furnace heating, without the usual for us modern amenities. Preindustrial housing possessed the properties of autonomy, relative stability, relatively low environmental hazard, not human isolates from the natural environment, but did not meet in zholzhnoy as sanitary and hygienic requirements.
Housing of the industrial age
Industrial housing needs for the existence of large engineering systems and their supporting industries. Thus, high-rise residential buildings are terminal or terminal facilities engineering services. Ecological damage to the environment modern buildings, thus causing both directly and through the engineering infrastructure and maintenance of its manufacturing sector. Compared with the past, pre-industrial times, this damage is critically high, and therefore the housing of the industrial age is antiekologichnym, both directly and in a system sense.
In this light, it is questionable whether the focus of many environmental organizations, mainly in the fight against industrial pollution, as it turns to a large extent the struggle with the consequences, not causes.
Despite the high level of intra sanitary conditions, it is recognized that industrial housing contributes to disease and degeneration of the people due to separation from nature, the failure to provide opportunities for a normal physical labor, a general deterioration of environmental conditions.
Primal antiekologichnost multistory buildings are explained collapse of numerous attempts to construct a city-gardens taken more than a century. Admittedly the character of urban development since the beginning of the industrial era to the present time, distinguished himself as inhuman, antiekologichny and deadlock.
Ecological housing
At the moment, spontaneously appear a new type of houses generally referred to ecological and who have every reason to become the main type of housing post-industrial era.
Briefly Ecohouse - is an individual or a block house with land, which is radically resource efficient and low-waste, healthy and well-equipped, non-aggressive towards the environment. This is achieved mainly using small autonomous or collective life-support systems engineering and rational design of building homes. What is important is these qualities he possesses not only as a separately taken, but the system - with all utilities and service of its production systems.
ECOLOGICAL HOUSE
Energy-efficient house
World Energy Demand
Modern history of ecological house-building can begin with energy-efficient homes that can be considered as direct precursors of environmental. The designs of energy-efficient houses have started to set after a certain energy crisis of the early 70 - ies.
Energy throughout istoriiyavlyalas most important resource necessary to any society. She is one of the basic human needs, providing the opportunity for heating and lighting homes, cooking. Besides the energy needed for industry, transport and communications.
Currently, the average inhabitant of the earth produces 20 MW * hr / year, with the spread of values for the various levels of development is more than 50 times. The total consumption of energy by mankind in our time more than 120 billion MW * hr / year and continues to grow at a rate of pribdizitelno 3% per year.
Environmental aspects of energy production
Energy production and use is always accompanied by environmental damage, which apparently can not be avoided in the future. Among all industries, the energy is leading to the degree of harmful effects on the environment. When considering the environmental problems of any city, any proimyshlennogo area always have to face as one of the main, with a bunch of environmental problems generated by energy production. Environmental damage from energy usually is comprehensive, polluted air, water, soil and disposed of at the mine, power plant, waste dumps and waste heaps large area. With energy-related global environmental issues such as the problem of acid rain, global warming, ozone holes. It is obvious that the dramatic way of solving environmental problems is to reduce energy consumption and production of energy. The calculation shows that at least in the housing CETOP can do multiple meshim amount of energy without deteriorating living conditions.
Initially, in this way any energy conservation program, and later started talking about energy efficiency. The second term is much wider, he means not only eliminating unnecessary waste of energy, but the odds increase efficiency of energy use in all energy processes.
Energy savings anywhere has always been a positive impact on the natural environment because it reduces the production (or increase at a slower pace) and to avoid pollution and waste throughout the usually very long, the chain of production, distribution and use. Experts estimate energy efficiency is 4-5 times more economical than development ekvivalenntnogo amount of energy.
Energy-efficient homes
Energy-efficient homes can be considered the closest relatives of ecological, and they can almost start a modern history ekodomostroeniya. Despite the fact that energy efficiency is far from exhausting all sides of ecological house, she is one of the main characteristics of ecological house and steppe its energy efficiency is one of its main characteristics. Successful projects are energy-efficient homes are a good basis for the construction of ecological houses.
Energy consumption in the residential sector
For energy supply of residential and public buildings in temperate countries spend about one-third of all energy consumed, thus the potential energy savings in the residential sector is very large.
Energy flows in the housing
The house is a single heat power system from passing through it flows with different energies.
Energy loss at home
The house loses its energy almost exclusively in the form of heat, because all the incoming energy is converted it into heat. The main channels of heat loss drma three: through building envelope, through the windows and the warmth of ventilated air. Since there is recent construction windows with sufficiently high resistance to heat transfer, the first opportunity to radically insulate homes to such an extent that it is not necessary heating even in extremely cold climates. Thus, it becomes a real slogan "better once warmed the house, than a lifetime of his heat."
Neotopitelnye teplopostupleniya
The house is in addition to functioning heating system, there are constant number of other energy processes involving heat. In total, these heat to medium-sized cottage in the national average conditions in the order of 10 MW * hour for the heating season. On the other hand heat loss during the same period can be made somewhat lower than this value.
Thermal control system
Instead of heating system in a well insulated house to compensate in extreme cold spells is enough to have low-power thermal control systems. Act, it will occasionally be performed by the radiant type.
Ventilation
On ventilation in existing buildings lost roughly a third of all heat. On this basis it would be natural to reduce it, but it may worsen the quality of indoor air, which is also unacceptable. Analysis of the display is that it is possible the holding of various kinds of measures aimed at slowing or compensation for deterioration of the health indicators of indoor air. At the same time without compromising indoor air quality will be possible to reduce the amount of ventilation and at the same time heat loss. Heat loss by ventilation can be reduced as the use of artificial lumped supply and exhaust ventilation systems with heat exchangers or heat pumps.
Power supply eco-houses
Renewable energy
For energy supply eco-houses is natural to use renewable energy sources (RES). It would be wrong to assert that the RES environmentally perfect, but the environmental damage caused by them far less than traditional energy.
Solar energy
Primary energy for life on earth with few exceptions is solar. She calculations show that in most regions of the Earth may be the main source of energy for Green Buildings. The idea of "solar house" has a considerable age, but if we turn to traditional beliefs, has also mystical rationale. It is part of the concept of environmental home.
In central Europe the annual arrival of solar radiation is 1.1 MW * hr / m [2], [] in the areas of the Sahara - 2.3 MW * hr / m [2]. In Russia, the arrival of solar energy on a horizontal surface ranges from 0.7 MW * hr / m [2] * a year in the north to 1.5 MW * hr / m [2] * a year in the south.

Table 1. The average annual arrival of solar energy on a horizontal platform.

City

MW * hr / m [2] * Year

City

MW * hr / m [2] * Year

Arkhangelsk

0.85

Omsk

1.26

Petersburg

0.93

Novosibirsk

1.14

Moscow

1.01

Rostov on Don

1.29

Ekaterinburg

1.1

Astrakhan

1.38

An elementary calculation shows that in central Russia occupies two-storey cottage in terms of 100 m [2] for the year receives from the sun more than 160 megawatts of power * hour, which exceeds its entire annual requirement even under the present wasteful energy consumption.
Heat suntrap
Solar thermal collectors convert sunlight energy directly into heat. The advantage of solar thermal converters is the high efficiency. In today`s collectors, he is 45 - 60%. The effectiveness of thermal suntrap increases if they are equipped with these or other radiation concentrating mirror surfaces. Very promising for eco-houses promise to be flat solar cells with linear radiation concentrator - Fauconnier. However, the needs of low-temperature heat in the summer house is small, because of the difficulty of its long-term storage until the winter when it is mainly needed to keep it hard. This explains the relatively limited their use in energy-efficient homes.
Depending on this thermal collectors are divided into planar and concentrator. Flat-plate collectors are most simple and cheap, but provide only a low-temperature heat, the scope is limited to energy facilities in the house. Concentrator collectors are more efficient, but quite complex including to operate, and expensive due to the need for rotary systems tracking the sun. Therefore their use in an autonomous power system housing until problematic.
Occupy an intermediate position emerged relatively recently Fauconnier - flat solar cells are composed of linear bands of radiant energy concentrators. Hubs in the section have V - shape (flat or paraboloid, the latter is more expensive but more efficient) to a wide range of angles to find the sun concentrating all or most of their radiation in the tapered part of which are located teplosemnye tube. Fauconnier combine the advantages of planar and concentrator collectors - they do not require strict orientation to the sun and at the same time provide a much higher temperature coolant, which increases their efficiency.
Teploulavlivayuschie wall
In recent years become popular with transparent walls are well insulated trap solar heat and transfer it into buildings. They are of interest for homes in transition, for environmental homes more efficient use of all of the same solar cells.
Photoelectric converters of solar energy
Electricity is a high-quality forms of energy because it can be easily converted and successfully maintained, so the need for its Green Buildings large enough. That is why the pilot house are in spite of the low in comparison with thermal batteries efficiency large area covered with photovoltaic solar receivers.
A common drawback of solar energy receiver is an irregularity and discrepancy between energy intake of these revenues to the schedule of basic needs dwellings in energy, hence they can be successfully used only in combination with one or other accumulators.
Placing solar collectors
In the absence of shading structures the entire area of eastern southern and western facades of the house, except for windows, can be occupied by solar collectors. This primarily applies to the least shaded roof surface makes it possible for what has already appeared with the term "energy roof." Now more and more appears in the sale of solar cells made as roofing elements.
The issue of access to the sun
Even in ancient Greece nezatenyaemost house and the surrounding area are guaranteed by law. In connection with the development of small solar energy the same right should be introduced in modern settlements.
With a dense urban development can be a problem of mutual shading suntrap trees, buildings or other structures. In this case should be adopted legislation and design rules to protect certain sectors of solar radiation homeownership from shading by tall trees or other objects in neighboring regions. Experience in legislative regulation of access to the sun households were still in ancient Greece. Calculations show that for sufficiently dense, such as a checkerboard arrangement of buildings, shading remains within acceptable limits. Futurists predict that the typical urban landscape near future will include the thousands located on rooftops storage of solar energy, which will be in the same part of everyday life, as well as television antennas today.
In the future you will create for areas prone to natural disasters solntsepriemnye device sufficiently resistant to their effects, just as it has done for the wind turbine tower and a blade that folds automatically when a dangerous wind.
Wind energy sources
Wind energy is being used by a variety of solar man since ancient times. Special value attached to it that in many regions it has a winter maximum to compensate for the lack of direct solar energy. In some areas, wind resources are so large that they can meet the energy demand at home in abundance. The excess energy can be used for industrial purposes or sold to an external network. The cost of wind power in some cases already is below the cost of energy obtained at thermal power stations.
Biomass Energy
There are breed-growing annuals and perennials that are already profitably grow for fuel needs. What is important is that the burning of specially grown biomass into the atmosphere does not get extra carbon dioxide, as in the growth process the same amount it absorbed. Thus the total amount of carbon dioxide-related greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is not increased and thus do not contribute to global warming.
Environmental heat
You can heat homes by selecting the heat from cold air, water, ice or soil. This can be accomplished using heat pumps - devices, in principle, identical to a household refrigerator, with the only difference is that the beneficial effect of heat is radiator. To drive the heat pump electrical energy is expended, but the resulting heat energy is 3-5 times more. Hence, in particular, should the irrationality of the direct use of electricity for etopleniya.
The use of heat pumps for space heating is advantageous in many countries have active programs stimulating ispolzoanie heat pumps with government support.
Energy Storage
Renewable energy comes irregularly, and sometimes unpredictable, more so of the solar collectors, it usually goes in the opposite schedule to the needs of the house in it. Indeed, more energy is required during the year in winter and during the day in the dark. In this connection, there arises the problem of energy storage, the subsequent transformation of its issuance and at the right time in the right form and quantity devices. This problem still remains technically more complicated than simply generating energy and not yet well-established solutions. The challenge is to create enough effective seasonal (months), medium-term (weeks) and mobility (days, hours) batteries. Greatest importance and difficulty is the creation of seasonal batteries, which are required to preserve energy for a few months to ensure that the winter peak consumption.
At present the most promising way of long-term conservation of energy in the house is keeping it in ideal hydrogen, obtained by hydrolysis of water, a metal hydride batteries. Advantages of the latter are in a low explosion and small volume. The inverse transformation of hydrogen into energy (electricity and heat) is possible with fuel cells. By price criteria hydrogen energy cycle for the house in the near future promises to be quite affordable.
Schemes using energy sources
In temperate climates, the most appropriate scheme of electricity at home is Next. In the summer of excess heat energgii directed to seasonal groundwater recharge batteries, power - to produce hydrogen. During the cold period, for a small admission of energy from renewable energy sources can use hydrogen and stored in the Groote heat to power a lady (electricity, hot water, heat for the thermal control system, etc.).
Attached Greenhouses
Attached to the house on the south side greenhouse can perform many useful functions - serve as a resting place, a playground for children, greenhouse, etc. Simultaneously, it is one of the cheapest and effective solntseulavlivayuschih devices, which makes its presence in the Green Buildings desirable.
Cost-effectiveness of renewable energy for Green Buildings
Currently, the cost of electricity produced at power plants using fossil fuels is about 7 cents per kilowatt * hour. Data on the price of solar electricity by different authors is currently characterized by a significant scatter. According to some data, they only slightly exceed the price of thermal power plants, on the other - exceed them several times. Better things with the economy vetroistochnikov, they produce energy at a cost of close to "heat" or even, in separate reports, down below. Thus, according to one source, for the eighties price vetroelektro-energy produced in the United States decreased by ten times and amounted to 7 cents. This was achieved by outdated facilities. In the U.S., predicted with the introduction of new wind farms decrease the value of their energy to 3.5 cents per kilowatt hour.
In the currently existing energy prices from the TPP and NPP uchityvatsya price caused by energy production of environmental damage, so a direct comparison of the cost of renewable energy and conventional sources of improperly. Taking into account the environmental component of the cost, solar and wind energy is economically advantageous to the traditional now and in future this gap will only widen.
Domestic energy consumption
Household appliances and energy consuming processes with a modern point of view, excessively wasteful. In posledneevremya some manufacturers move to producing energy-efficient appliances. Their energy consumption for the same function can be repeatedly lower than usual. It is known that the lighting in their homes spent 20-35% of electricity. In recent years, new energy-saving bulbs, which consume 6-7 times less energy than traditional incandescent bulbs. Analogichnve examples can be on the refrigerator, washing machine, etc.
Saving energy at home can also achieve an improvement of household energy-intensive processes, such as laundry or cooking, using automatic control of appliances, etc.
Summary of Energy Efficiency
By the degree of energy efficiency homes can be classified as follows. Houses in transition - consume for heating is much less energy than in the average home. Followed by the House of zero of heat - insulated so well that they do not need heating. This is followed by energoavtonomnye or energosamodostatochnye home - udoaletvoryayuschie all its energy needs through individual or collective RES and thereby poluchpyuschie external energy. Finally possible energoizbytochnye home, exporting energy. Examples of such buildings already exist.
Resource-saving and low-emission house
House non-aggressive to the environment should not only be energy efficient, but also resource-efficient as a whole. In addition to his power and energy enters the water, on the other hand, it generates waste - waste water and domestic waste. In particular, cleaning, delivery of home water and sewage run large technical systems are causing significant harm to the environment.
Water-efficient house
Drawbacks of the established system water use
Modern water treatment systems and feed it into the house, as well as sewage and wastewater treatment have become a huge and extensive facilities are eaters of natural resources. In particular, and because their construction and operation require a set of industrial enterprises. Entire river in the vicinity of large cities disappear in the pipes, then to appear somewhere in the form of poisonous solutions.
Water supply and sewerage Green Buildings
In modern cities, domestic water consumption is 300-400 liters per person per day. Already, through the use of vodoekonomnyh domestic processes and water-saving plumbing may reduce this figure several times. With this reduced water consumption in most parts of the Earth`s water supply is becoming a real homes of individual or collective sources. Water from natural sources, there is no need to clean drinking water to high standards. Rationally apply to the house of water with varying degrees of treatment for, respectively, of different types of use. Individual stokoochistnye setup is also advisable to make differentiated inputs on various types of polluted waters. Drains on them can ochischatnsya to irrigation quality and used for irrigation on the houses adjoining uastke. On the one hand passing through the soil, water will doochischatsya, with another - to enrich its useful substances. Effective means of post-treatment can also serve as a special biological ponds and playgrounds.
Hot water for domestic purposes appropriate to receive the warm period of solar water heaters in the cold - in addition to using heat pumps and waste heat power generator and other energopriborov.
Organic wastes and soil conservation
Every year several billion (3-5) tons of agricultural products and various plant material arrives in the city which turns into waste and pollution in the form returned to the environment. Part becomes contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic substances from the sludge of wastewater treatment plants, part goes to landfill waste, causing them to rot. Nonrenewable entrainment of nutrients from the soil leads to a progressive loss of topsoil, which is one of the most pressing environmental problems.
Toilets
Effective way to restore soil fertility and reducing the amount of household waste are composting toilets. One should distinguish the real from the chemical toilets, which are for promotional purposes are also called portable toilets. In the past feces processed chemicals, after which they become dangerous to the environment and should act on the sewage treatment plant.
One promising for resource efficient home composting toilets is Klivus Multrum (CM). He represents the slope of the camera for composting (and translated his name) in which similar natural processes peregnivaniya organic residues are in a intensified. Toilet anhydrous, has no moving parts, consumes no energy. Sanitarnyya its safety certified by the Swedish Ministry of Health. Times of 1.5 - 2 years through a special hatch out of it is taken in ready to use concentrated fertilizer. This bio-toilet should have been called a bioreactor, since it through a single hole may be disposed of kitchen waste and crop residues. In the presence of the home installation of wastewater treatment sediments formed therein may also be disposed of in toilets. Since the bio-toilet, anhydrous, total water consumption in the home can be reduced by an order of an additional waste water released from components that are creating the most difficulties for cleaning them.
Recycling of household waste
Existing society is now focused on the use of disposable products can be called "otbrosnym society." L. Brown, director of the Institute of the World observation, says that: "Future historians will probably appreciate our use of disposable materials such as dementia."
Residential houses in addition to contaminated wastewater, are sources of huge amounts of solid waste (MSW), which in volume and harmfulness are comparable to common shaft industrial waste. Problem of disposing of solid waste and landfill problems in the developed countries are among the sharpest. Value of the factor of MSW will increase even if we pay attention to the fact that a significant proportion of industrial waste is the result of production of goods and services to the public and can be reduced when switching to a more environmental style of consumption.
Incineration of MSW is a palliative, and ultimately unsatisfactory from an environmental point of view.
Recycling
The cardinal and the most environmentally and economically acceptable solution to the problem of household waste is to use them as secondary raw materials. This trend has been called recycling.
It has three main components - Respect for recycling at the stage of designing and manufacturing the separate collection of waste in their places of education (including in the residential sector), system of collection of secondary resources and return them to production. This approach results in household waste in the long run will disappear as such.
Wastelessness
The challenge of wastelessness industrial production as a problem is formulated correctly, since the scale of waste is relative and does not vanish. You can talk about lil more or less waste of the technology of others. At least now there are no wastes nothing more than diversionary propaganda myth. In the analysis of any declared wastelessness case, it appears that the waste is only slightly reduced or reduce their harmful effects. It follows that there can be no environmental goods, because their production is inevitably accompanied by environmental damage. As well as in the case of production can only talk about the comparative environmental performance.
Separate collection of solid waste in the field of education
Household waste collected separately immediately useful in their places of education - residential and commercial sectors. This requires a change in consumer habits, but this is inevitable and shows already gained experience in many countries, the population of this sufficiently prepared to
Composition of MSW
In approximately one third of municipal solid waste ststavlyayut food waste, nearly half - paper, cardboard and textiles. The other factions, such as polymers, leather, rubber, ceramics, metal, stone, glass is several percent. In industrialized countries, containers and packaging account for 30% of the weight of debris and 50% by volume. In addition to a relatively small component of solid waste, a significant value are bulky household waste (CCD), a furniture, refrigerators, etc.
Separate collection of waste in Green Buildings
In Green Buildings at the level of construction must be provided special facilities for primary treatment, separate collection and safe storage of waste. Sanitary safety in the home storage of household waste between periodic and their delivery, will provide inter alia the lack of it capable of rotting organic matter, which goes into a bio-toilet.
Garbage can be divided into different numbers of grades or as they say, "baskets". Increasing the number of "baskets" facilitates further processing, but also complicates the collection. At present there are collection systems containing from three to thirty "baskets". In Green Buildings shall be provided with a sufficiently large gradations of garbage separation and determination of primary processing.
Ecological style of consumption
Now, many environmental organizations develop practices environmental assessment of products and services. The full version of this examination includes not only an assessment of safety products for the consumer, but also its suitability for recycling and the degree of environmental friendliness of its production. Thus the estimated life-cycle product. The evaluation can call for a boycott of its goods and the company produces, or, conversely, its recommendation. Following such recommendations is the way to the ecological style of consumption that will be common inhabitants of natural eco-houses.
In many countries, and individual municipalities have successfully implemented recycling. In Seattle, for example, 77% of household waste used as secondary raw materials, in one of the cities of New York State, this figure increased to 84%.
In the Soviet Union also implemented programs to recycle certain types of bytoayh waste, but in the subsequent period of crisis, they were virtually collapsed.
Summary of ratsiklirovaniyu
Lack of domestic waste is not an individual, and Green Buildings system property, ie it will manifest itself fully in the "ekodomovyh" settlements in the appropriate adaptation utility and industrial production. However, even at the level of Green Buildings proper quantity and toxicity of waste can be dramatically reduced.
Resource-saving and life cycle of Green Buildings
Higher than was justified by resource efficiency Green Buildings in the phase of exploitation. However, the high degree of environmental effect of certain design features can be achieved and the stages of its construction, renovation or disposal. Thus Ecohouse justifies its name and position estimation of its life cycle.
Summary
The problem of green material consumption, contrary to popular belief, it is more than vzhnoy reduce resource consumption and pollution by industrial production, since the consumer sector, including Housing "served" at least half of the total productive capacity and, consequently, waste, pollution and other environmental damage this "half" should be attributed to the residential sector. In other words modern homes are responsible for the formation of a large amount of industrial waste and pollution. And the industry to service housing, and life is usually the most technologically backward, and therefore resource-intensive and polluting.
To serve the entire life cycle of eco-housing will require significantly less capacity, and among them will dominate high-tech low-waste company (in particular priborostoitelnye). Thus be significantly reduced "production infrastrukturnuya" part of the associated waste.
Waste should be viewed not only quantitatively but also qualitatively side. In the case when it is not subject to recycling solid waste residue is small and consists of biodegradable and inert substances it can not exceed the safety threshold processing, or deposit of the local buffer of natural systems. In this case Ecohouse can be considered virtually non-waste.
Passive House
In the past, builders are using either traditional or folk sttroitelnymi old architectural techniques usually blended well built into the surrounding landscape, achieved a good match dwellings surrounding natural environment. Houses were usually closely associated with the surrounding natural systems, were built of local materials, dependent on local energy, food and water, the next natural systems, carrying out a buffer role, recycled their waste.
In the last 100 - 150 years due to the industrialization of construction and the prevalence of tehnoekstremistskih urban planning concepts, homes lost touch with the natural landscape, the construction of tall buildings has generally lead to complete destruction of the natural landscape.
In contrast, low-rise buildings can be significantly lighter inscribed into the landscape without major violations. Opportunities to blend harmoniously into the landscape of ecological house more than just a low-rise buildings, and even more than traditional folk dwellings due to the modern resource-saving technology, which reduces pressure on the surrounding natural systems. For example do not require wood or other fuels for heating and cooking, not raw sewage is dumped, etc. Eco-house in general is like a living creature, such as in a northern climate, he, like many pet stores energy in the summer due to which there is in the winter months. He has just as plants have the ability to use solar energy, etc.
In ancient times people believed that there are places favorable loya building a house or settlement, or adverse effects. Currently, there are researchers continue to seek, on this subject, they have developed new techniques by the choice of favorable places for storoitelstva or correction of geopathic fields. During the construction of eco-houses, you can use these recommendations.
Eco-house terms, energy-efficient housing, architects often use having in mind the application to the normal housing of a complex architecture of composite measures that reduce its heat loss. This may be giving the house rounded forms, the selection inside the building-heat the buffer zone, protecting the building from prevailing cold winds by planting trees, etc. However, the energy saving potential of these techniques is small, it amounts to no more than 20 -30 per cent of the average level. Therefore, build only with the help of these methods is really energy-efficient housing can not, you can only talk about the house in transition.
Green House
The usefulness and desirability of plants in the house and around it does not require proof. As shown by studies of architects in people of different ages and nationalities of the concept of paradise stably associated with the image of the garden. Garden is the first thing God created after a starry sky. Therefore to raise the quality of housing should place it in the garden, and in northern climates it is desirable to additionally arrange a winter garden in the house.

Plants in the home can improve the hygienic conditions, the aesthetic quality of homes, crops and fruit at the same time can be very symbolic. Thus Ecohouse will provide its residents great opportunities to engage in crop production in the house and the adjoining area. Inside the house are assumed to be adjoined greenhouse and winter garden, there may be special biokultivatsionnye setting for year-round cultivation of vegetables, seaweed, etc.
Plants around the house
Even in Eco-house must have a least a small 2-3 weave a plot of land that will be used mainly for garden, garden, greenhouse, etc. This character of the use of the site should be normative. Already, the regulation of household and prikvartirnyh sites is a common practice in many cities and towns. Thus, in the city Ecohouse be mikrofermoy. On the other hand the presence of green houses adjoining areas will improve the quality of the environment and will save the town square at the expense of some reduction of green space for general use.
Now developed a lot of intensive cultivation of agricultural biotechnology including for minimum area. For example the French designer L. Poisson quit his job in Paris, bought a six-hectare site and together with his wife collects on its harvest can feed 20 people. Thus food for one person going to an area of 30 m [2]. (Journal of Technical Aesthetics, "1988," Ecological Design - the search and results ", p. 1 - 8.)
In 1972, the American NGO "Ecology Action" beginning to improve the methodology biointensivnogo grow vegetables without using pesticides. When using this technique requires 100 times less energy is eight times less water and less than half of nitrogen fertilizer (in some cases may be denied by them) per unit of output than in the commercial farming USA.
Permaculture
Very interesting from the standpoint of use in conjunction with the Green Buildings agricultural technologies is a permaculture. In translation it means a long-term, sustainable agriculture. The basic idea of permaculture is to create a person`s own ecosystem that included as many as possible useful for the people of species. Thus the main difference between the cultivated, constructed ecosystem and natural ecosystems is that bloshinstvo species and biomass in the cultivation system are edible or otherwise useful to man. Permakulturnye systems possess all the characteristics of natural ecosystems - biodiversity, sustainability, resilience. They are characterized by layering and a variety of useful species.
Linking with engineering sistemamami
All technical and biological systems in the eco-houses are closely interrelated, is not exception in this sense, and internal and external landscaping. So for watering the plants may be used purified to a certain limit (irrigation quality) waste water, on the other side of the water filtering through the soil can doochischatsya. In composting toilets may be disposed of Green Buildings and vegetable waste from the site and from the greenhouse, increasing the yield of the concentrated organic fertilizer. Using the latter will increase the fertility of both houses adjoining land, and remote farmland which can be sent to surplus.
Agricultural production in home gardens and in greenhouses including in urban areas, the intensive and environmentally friendly biotechnology on the one hand will help to reduce agricultural pressures on the environment, on the other - a partial food self-sufficiency of families living in Green Buildings.
Naturalization Economy
Modern purely commodity-based economy is a kind of extreme, and not free from shortcomings, at least such as loss during transportation and storage of products, the cost of packaging, etc. Thus, eco-housing in which many vital goods and services can be produced locally, may contribute to certain "naturalization" management and this should be regarded as his dignity.
Healthy Home
As already noted, modern accommodation can be described as a terminal in the sense that it does not promote a healthy lifestyle. On the one hand it alienates a person from a favorable environment for him and puts him in an increasingly deteriorating artificial urban environment, on the other - in itself contributes to the widespread deterioration of environmental conditions. Here we can cite the academician AMN S. Schwartz: "The only familiar (in an evolutionary sense) among men, which provides him the best psychological and physical condition - it is nature which can not be replaced, even the best imitation." In modern urban people increasingly found themselves isolated from their natural habitat and more exposed to the deteriorating urban environment, which adversely affected his physical and mental health.
Chemical Revolution and the life
Over the past decade, a home life of people invaded the set of chemicals, plastics, synthetic substances. Most people know the dangers of environmental pollution, however, seriously underestimate the levels of pollution inside the home. According to the UN in the world today produces about 100,000 different chemicals. According to UN experts given at the Global Forum in Rio from the entire array of information about their dangers we know for certain 5%, partially - 12% and 83% - is unknown. Thus when we are dealing with new materials, information about their risk for the most part we do not know.

There are many known examples of how the substance is considered relatively harmless initially, subsequently recognized very dangerous. Chrestomathy example of DDT which was used after its opening indefinitely, but many years later was banned as an extremely toxic. Experts admit that today they have no reliable methods for the rapid identification of risk of new chemicals. Some hazards are discovered decades later. Still less do they know about the dangers of joint action on the body of mixtures of chemicals. At the same time, people are usually exposed to direct a set of pollutants even in low doses, and that it is modern science, in most cases is unknown.
Detoxification at home
Building and Decoration Materials
Building materials may pose a risk to human health.

In terms of impact on health materials can be arranged in the following order - the least desirable as a structural material metals, the next group consists of concrete, stones with crystal components, glass, various plastics, are preferred clay brick, soft rocks of sedimentary origin. The best are the materials of biogenic origin - wood, straw and other plant material, unfired gruntobloki etc.
Interiors & Furniture
Above, in the chapter on air quality, said that finishing facilities, furniture, etc. can serve as sources of some harmful effects. In particular, it has various plastics, synthetic and multi-component materials. It is obvious that eco-houses should be only safe enough for the health materials.
Household chemicals
Prominent toxic dose tenants get out of use many insecticides and zootsidami - poisons designed to combat domestic insects and rodents. All of these drugs although to varying degrees, are poisonous to humans, especially children.
Use of certain chemicals in modern life is often a craze, and aggressive advertising. So in the book "How to protect yourself from dangerous substances in the home" is a set of simple old recipes that allow you to successfully do without many modern chemicals.
Cooking
Existing methods of home cooking with energy and environmental point of view are far from perfect. The process of cooking, sometimes little changed from the legendary times energorastochitelny, accompanied by considerable air and water pollution, often significantly reduce the nutritional value of foods. Hence there is an urgent task for the designers to make them energy efficient, including using renewable energy sources, minimally polluting and relevant criteria for a healthy diet.
Electromagnetic Smog
According to World Health Organization, one of the important factors affecting the health of the people was the impact of electric and magnetic fields. Source of electromagnetic fields in homes is the wiring and numerous appliances. With estates measures their level of eco-houses can be significantly reduced.
Safe House
Modern multi-storey building - the object of which is entirely based on the municipal engineering infrastructure and fully depends on it. Without it he is helpless and practically unsuitable for life. Among other things, it determines its high vulnerability - just figuratively turn off or disable a switch and the district or the city remain without electricity or water and a normal life they will be paralyzed.
Green Buildings The principal difference lies in the fact that it relies on the natural infrastructure, such as solar, wind, soil fertility, which is difficult to disable. In this regard, residential education consisting of eco-houses will be highly stable both in terms of natural and man-made disasters.
Since Ecohouse has high technical complexity, there is a legitimate question about his reliability, and on that side. The analysis shows that there are already sufficient means to ensure reliable and safe operation of engineering systems, life support Green Buildings.
Thus Ecohouse be able to provide its residents a much greater security than the existing dwelling.
Creative House
Lifestyles of the modern city-dweller - the product of a long process of alienation from nature and his activity and creativity available to the villagers. Because of the excessive crowding of modern urban dwelling largely restrict their tenants.
In the individual house a person can be their own architect, builder, designer, farmer, etc. He had more opportunities to do what or creative activities. Due to high technical equipment and other benefits, Ecohouse for this initiative is more favorable than the usual individual house.
The right to life ekofilny
Above it was shown how modern life style and consumption are far from the elementary requirements of ecology. However, the whole prevailing current socio-technical system he imposed on a person, regardless of his wishes.
The constitutions of many countries have already declared to the right of citizens to a healthy environment, but the right to not causing to the nature of life and be able to get the same work available. Eco-housing could provide a person is right, but that it should encourage States and have the appropriate legal support.
The educational role of Green Buildings
Modern man Ecohouse may seem complicated, but for those who grow up in it, on the contrary, the current home seem too primitive. For a child living at the Green Buildings will be limited natural technical and environmental university. For the development of children Ecohouse provide far greater opportunities than, for example, conventional concrete chamber with walls, known as a city apartment.
Ecohouse can play a big role in environmental education of the population. The first samples of eco-houses, or more precisely, approaching homes in their properties to environmental and often are both examples of civil servants and for demo purposes. So for example, "House of the Future" built in Holland for 5 years, 2.5 million people attended. In a pilot energy-efficient home in Freiburg professionals are faced with higher costs of electricity from a pilgrimage to the house teleoperatornyh groups. Thus the interest in environmental homes now provided as part of the population and from the media.
Sociopsychological aspects of
Eco-housing certainly have an impact on culture and psychology of people, in particular, it is clear that it will help to reduce social dependency and infantilism as material livability rights will depend largely on his personal efforts, not many utilities, as is the case now. It is obvious that eco-housing will contribute to greater solidarity of family members in sharing housework aimed at their own zhizneobepechenie as it was in preindustrial times and will do official favors large families consisting of several generations.
House Information
Now there is a natural tendency to embed bc appliances microprocessor control systems. Appear management system for all engineering systems at home as a whole. In the west a run, including possible and at a distance, the house was called the "electronic cottage".
The relatively high sozhnost engineering systems Green Buildings will also require corresponding development of management systems. Specificity of them will appear in that priority in their design and choice of management programs will be given the task of achieving a high sanitary, energy and resource conservation.
The world is now included in the information age. On the one hand, it dictates what Ecohouse can and should provide a powerful information communication channel, On the other hand it was he who by virtue of its naturalness and closeness to nature can withstand the adverse effects of computerization.
Synthesis of Green Buildings
Under pressure from the energy crisis of the early 70 - ies, a host of projects, energy efficient homes. Over time it became increasingly clear that the houses need to be improved and other aspects. In this paper, under the Green Buildings understood integrally efficient home in those aspects which have been described by leaching. When the house becomes fully resource-saving and low-waste, healthy for humans and non-aggressive towards the natural environment, there is a self-sufficient integrity that can make a big impact on the harmonization of relations between man and nature.
Integrative properties of Green Buildings
Finding the integrity of the Eco-house becomes a magnet and an integrating center for virtually all modern positive trends and movements. Proponents of a healthy lifestyle, new systems of education and training, social rehabilitation, and various types of creative expression, the revival of handicrafts, environmentalists all directions, etc. find a house perfect for their activities. Because with these eco-housing can play a key, strategic role in the transition to an environmentally sustainable civilization.
Natural home
Now among the founders of eco-houses many adherents position, which could be described as the concept of a natural home, according to which the home should be as much as possible natural materials and technologies, and as little machinery. Author, this approach seems extreme, because without sophisticated technology and modern materials can not achieve a high degree of resource and general ecological house.
Comparative economic indicators of eco-housing
Talking about the economic acceptability or otherwise of eco-housing is the same as to speculate on whether the roads are not too lifeline to a drowning man. Within the same recognition is no alternative to eco-housing in the future, a discussion of its economy is quite legitimate, because it allows trezvootsenit the short term, the pace and tactics of the transition to it.
Currently selected environmental house in order because it will be a new, unique, yet waste products, will generally be more expensive than a similar house performed by a traditional scheme. Houses in transition using proven and successful individual finds in the construction of efficient homes can now be cheaper than usual. It should be borne in mind now, do not count in the price of reducing the cost of environmental damage priekspluatatsii transitional homes.
The full benefits of eco-houses will be borne by their massive construction. It will be cheaper and the construction and operation of residential areas, makes it possible for a sharp reduction in the required engineering and manufacturing infrastructure and a more rational use of and improving the ecological environment, numerous social benefits, etc.
Current state of building eco-housing
At the present time in different countries carried out many projects for the construction of high buildings. Already there are houses of all grades of energy efficiency, including zero energy homes as well as energoizbytochnye. A house built for himself such as in northern Sweden engineer olefins Tegistrom. This two-storey house of 120 m [2]. Thickness of the insulating material of walls, 24 cm, the windows have triple glazing. In the system of forced ventilation is a heat exchanger. The house temperature is maintained at 23 [o] C. The house is located in an area with strong winds, so the main energy source is wind generator mounted on a mast height of 22 m. It produces annually about 100 MW * hour. electricity. Energy is stored in a week teplovodyanom battery capacity 5m [3] and iron-titanium metal hydride hydrogen accumulator. Hydrogen is produced polymer hydrolyser of water with an efficiency of 35-40% for hydrogen. All the power house for the year is 10 MW * hour. Surplus energy enough to travel on a commercial vehicle with an engine SFFB reworked to hydrogen fuel. In the presence of electric cookers family prefers to cook on a gas cooker (with a catalyst suppresses the formation of oxides of nitrogen) powered by a hydrogen battery. House of heat is zero for the average European conditions some firms have already mastered in production.
Rosiysky experience
In Russia, due to financial constraints and lack of adequate government support programs, there is no construction of efficient homes, although transitional home trying to build in Novosibirsk, Belarus, inekotoryh elsewhere.
Eco-housing and living environment of settlements
Effective ecological house requires many times less physical infrastructure serving the municipal services and industrial maintenance. Because they occupy large areas of land in today`s proud and largely determine their structure and appearance, drastic reduction of the proliferation of eco-housing will significantly improve their condition and not only in environmental terms. We can say that the city could lose unwanted infrastructure and industrial ballast is largely responsible for the burden of problems that they now have.
Level of neighborhood
Low-rise buildings ekologichekaya able to radically improve gordskuyu environment, the principles of building housing estates should be subject to change. One of the major new planning principles should be the orientation of the south and unshaded solar facades. Even in ancient Greece, home access to sunlight households had a legal norm. Prescriptive regulation should also apply to the organization of houses adjoining land in order to avoid littering and congestion redundant buildings and to encourage their planting.
Property system is compact eco-housing
One of the most striking phenomena of eco-housing is that on this basis can be constructed in the city with a predominantly low-rise buildings, but does not take more territory than the existing high-rise city. The reason is that although the population density in residential areas will be somewhat lower (in the cities will make use of two-and chetyrehkvartirnye ekoloma), by increasing the area of residential areas in the structure of the population density of the city remain at approximately the same level. Increasing the area of residential areas will occur by reducing the area under constructions engineering infrastructure of the industry, warehouse areas, etc.
Rehabilitation of soil settlement
Vsovremennyh cities too much land is closed asphalt, concrete, foundations, structures. When building neighborhoods Green Buildings will be possible to significantly increase ploschadd open, which has a positive impact on the hydrological and climatic regime areas, will increase the amount of green space.
Landscape aspects
Environmental eastroyka being low-rise can be dstatochno easily fit into the natural landscape without significant violations that hard to do when a multi-storey building.
Collective utility networks
In some cases it may be beneficial association of any of engineering systems that Green Buildings with its neighbors. This may be a collective vetroenergoistochnik installed at a distance in the optimum position, shared by several houses seasonal battery, general bioponds for biological purification of waste water, etc.
Habitat quality, even in urban areas built eco-houses may correspond to the summer holidays, provided, of course, that the city itself is under the influence of eco-housing to change its overall structure. Approximately the same manner be transformed and non-urban settlements formed Green Buildings, the only difference is that restrictions on the area of land they will be much weaker and may appear especially planning and technical decisions in connection with the possibility of agricultural or other productive activities.
Urban areas
In contrast to the district or urban area are not big city can include not only residential area but also all other areas are integral parts of the city. This area community centers, industrial, warehousing, utility, external transport, parks and forest parks, etc. Urban area is generally speaking, can not consist entirely of eco-houses. You will need a special type of housing and other public buildings, educational, administrative, cultural, etc. appointments, which would be more appropriately be performed in high-rise version. It could be hotels, student hostels, homes for the poor, etc. Multi-storey buildings can be made more environmentally friendly than it is now, but until they bring the level of Green Buildings is impossible.
Multistory buildings appropriate to gather in separate groups, so for example they can be placed in one or more community centers. For their service should be established corresponding to small-sized local utility networks.
At the level of the urban area should be organized system of recycling, including collection of separated waste, necessary storage facilities, processing facilities, transport enterprises. This system will come to replace the current system musoroudalenie and disposal.
In eco-friendly urban area, as well as in the city as a whole, less space will be occupied by industrial, utility, storage areas due to reduction and reduction of obsolete production facilities and the changing nature of production on the remaining plants.
City level
Now generally accepted that the modern city are in a protracted crisis, ways out of which is not offered. At the Congress of the World Association of metropolises held in 1987, noted that major cities are facing serious difficulties in their functioning and that the city once considered the main engine of economic and social progress, is now regarded as a brake. This is confirmed by the rapid deterioration of living conditions of the urban population, associated with lack of infrastructure (housing, transportation, water, medical care), the economic crisis, rising unemployment and financial difficulties, ecological imbalance and increasing social inequality. At a meeting in 1993 in Chicago, was adopted by the Congress of Architects adopted a declaration in which the task of ensuring the sustainability of the natural environment has been declared the main goal of architectural activity.
The crisis led to the current problems began to develop in the second half of last century due to the start of intense urban growth and industrialization. At the same time, as opposed to, the idea of a garden city and began the story of numerous attempts, in modern terms, greening cities, none of which has not led to the Sox has a tangible success.
At the beginning of the century many architects seem that in order to create a radiant green city, it is necessary to settle the people in the highest possible homes, so as to release more land for parks and gardens. As for tall buildings, as it turned out, needed a lot of agencies that serve them and other structures, then built on the principles of urbanized areas with green and liveable did not. Although there is still this kind of projects are sometimes designed and not just amateurs. It is now becoming increasingly clear that the future of cities is connected with the opposite tendency, namely, eco-friendly low-rise buildings.
The phenomenon of the city
Prior to the consideration of what may be the city with a predominantly residential area provided by eco-houses, you should first consider the phenomenon of the city. In this century have failed a number of ambitious attempts to design and create a city based on the representations of them as large technical systems. According to these ideas was assumed that the city - a kind of machine for human life, and how the designer created it so he would be in practice. Ie the better he will design, the better it will operate the city and the fact it is more convenient to live in it citizens. But the practice of a number of ambitious projects for the construction of new towns has shown that the city does not behave like a machine, but as a living system as a kind of organism that has its own laws of development, and if the designer did not consider them, the real city breaks the scope of the project and rebuilt in accordance with their own laws. it is very important to evaluate numerous projects greening cities and build Ecopolis.
Concept Ecopolis
Representation of the city as a complex living system Polystructural important to find ways to green, in which modern cities clearly need. In this case, immediately, without going into details we can say that when it comes to the concept of improvement of specific environmental areas of the city, the results would be at best a shallow and unstable. A Town Like any living, unlike machines, the system can effectively improve only as a whole, not piecemeal. Nevertheless, at present, such one-sided and therefore incapable of the program are quite common, and each uses the term eco-city. To distance himself from them in this paper, the term used in the conventional sense will not.
The idea of a perfect "radiant" of the city troubled philosophers since ancient times. At the end of the last century, it was embodied in the idea of cities - the gardens of E. Howard. Already in this century offered many projects of ecological cities. In its most narrow sense of eco-city or Ecopolis is a city with eco-friendly environment for people of habitat in its territory and in the suburbs. Such an approach implies a pollution control town environment, increasing green areas, and similar well-known events. By themselves, these measures are useful, but the desired improvement of ecological situation in the city can not lead as ignoring the fact that the basic fabric of the city - high-rise housing in principle antiekologichna.
More sophisticated concept of eco-city suggest a harmonious arhiteturu, spatial unity and the functional connectivity of green areas, individualized houses adjoining spaces, mostly low-rise buildings. As can be seen at the same time, yet the basic idea of eco-city is a qualitative and quantitative development of greenery. Assumed maximum landscaping including walls and roofs of buildings. Thus for some expansion of the approach is not assumed anything new on printsirialno sravneiyu with the known concept of the city - gardens, which has already proven to be utopian. In practice, it is now, as noted in VV Vladimirov "Resettlement and Environment:" And in today`s housing and urban development in general trends are that the city soon move away from the idea Ecopolis than closer to it. "
Author`s opinion the main reason for all the failures of attempts to solve urban environmental problems lies in the fact that a typical modern urban housing in essence antiekologichno. But the living environment is the basic fabric of the city, its system-forming element, and if it neekologichna, then the city itself will be such, although to any functionally-planning tricks designers. To paraphrase a famous saying you can say that from the worthless material is a good product will not do. But it must be true and the reverse - a city established on the basis of eco-housing can be at other reasonable solutions truly environmentally friendly.
Strictly speaking should not talk about the eco-friendly city, and osovershennom town, as good quality habitat is not a guarantee of the corresponding socio-economic, cultural, etc. living conditions in the city. Of course itself is eco-housing does not automatically make the city greener, but it will open a real prospect to achieve not only high quality environment in the city, but also make the city perfect in all its manifestations and to radically reduce the negative impact of cities on the surrounding area.
Engineering infrastructure
Gradoplanirovschiki may be slightly exaggerating, claimed that the medieval city established a wagon. Similarly, the modern city is largely formed by submitting the requirements and restrictions dictated by the need to develop and maintain the current status of public utility systems. Over time, these systems are exaggerated grown and now the city can be represented as a giant octopus - engineering infrastructure, at the ends of tentacles, which are at home. Eco-housing will dramatically reduce this heavy burden on the body of the city, to remove many of the prohibitions and restrictions in its development and improve its structure. In particular it will be possible to increase the area occupied by residential areas with about 30% currently to 40 -45% by eliminating the placement of the object of infrastructure and other factors. This will lead to the fact that although the population density in residential raynonah fall, the density of the whole city will remain approximately the same level and low-rise city buildings ecological high-rise will be no more of the same population.
Transport and urban environmental problems
Restructuring of the city based on eco-housing touches and its transportation system. For several reasons, the load as a passenger and freight transport on the decline. This will reduce accordingly for bigger system, with consequent positive environmental and other consequences.
Narushenieya geological environment in cities
The problem of violations of the geological environment and the related loss is a major for the modern city. Typical are those such as karst-naruscheniya suffosion processes and flooding territoty. They annually produce large losses the city budget, the elimination of the same would also require huge amounts. On the other hand, all these disturbances are generated mainly multi-storey building and it needs many utilities. Transition to ecological building largely removes these problems.
Videoecology
A person is a negative effect not only air pollution, increased noise, electromagnetic fields, but does not meet the physiological needs of the visible environment. In modern urban visual environment acquired mostly monotonous nature or aggressively. This consequently affects the health and mental well-being of people. On the other hand experts believe that with the help of low-rise buildings set up on individual projects can be znaschitelno easier to make the streets a man and a commensurate blanopriyatny to view the form. Thus environmental eastroyka being low-rise and receiving coverage for high-rise is preferable.
Summarizing the discussion on the impact of ekozastroyki city is safe to assume that ekodomogorod will be characterized by the quality of the environment is approaching the summer holidays, more efficient and environmentally friendly structure, utilities and industry, higher proportion of residential areas in the general area of the city, greater security and stability in relation to disasters both natural and artificial origin.
Geoplanirovka
In connection with numerous cases of expansion and merging of the cities and the formation of megacities and other qualitative changes, as the cities themselves and the whole system poseleniyv currently vary considerably and acquire new traits. Some researchers talk about the obsolescence of the concept of the city, the relative separation in the current conditions in urban and rural areas, the need to replace them with notions of urban areas, an integrated settlement system, etc. For the sequel it is important that city planning is increasingly associated with the plan non-urban areas. Development planning of settlements in rural areas is also inseparable from the surrounding areas of planning, not only selsohozyaystvennyh.
Even in antiquity, some cities were created and developed is not spontaneously, but according to the previously developed plan, in the last century, this practice has become almost universal. Since the last century, it spread to the entire territory of many states, and thus originated the design discipline dealing with the distribution of land within the State under one or other kind of use. Within the meaning of this discipline could be blolee or less accurately described as spatial planning and regional development planning. However, in the annex to it, these names do not like, and she got in different countries, different and equally bad name. In anglophone countries, it is usually called a plan, in Russia - the land (for rural settlements and economic areas) and urban development (for all other territories). It seems more appropriate name would be geoplanirovka.
About geoplanirovku can say on the one hand, it is extremely important to have a major impact on all spheres of society institute rlanirovaniya use of land, On the other - that she is his true role and significance of virtually unknown Russian public including Science. And, accordingly, is not evaluated its role in solving many important problems. In particular, it is incorrect to consider the issue of private ownership of land without reference to its current level geoplanirovochnyh technologies and their legal support. It is no exaggeration to say that the lion`s share of environmental problems the correct way should bvla be resolved within the framework geoplanirovaniya. On the other hand the state geoplanirovki as project discipline and its legal provision currently in Russia disappointingly low, which represents an important and under this message.
Eco-housing and global probdemy
Eco-housing can significantly reduce material and resource requirements, and all kinds of waste and pollution in cities and other populated areas and, consequently, vtakoy equally reduce the damaging effects of tsiailizatsii on the biosphere. Odnakonako positive impact eco-housing is not limited to interpretation decline in resource use and pollution in different ways it will contribute to a qualitative change in the economic, social, cultural, etc. institutions.
Eco-housing and the economy
Each type of housing and plaguing corresponds to a certain structure of production, a type of economy. Current resursorastochitelnomu type of accommodation meets the same economy. Eco-housing also would create a massive demand for high-tech products: solar panels, control systems, heat pumps, the elements of the hydrogen energy cycle, etc. On the other hand drops demand for low-tech, relevant companies will get re or closed.
Eco-housing and environmental investments
One of the most urgent and at the same time is not intractable problems, even for rich countries is to increase the share of budgetary funds allocated for nature conservation purposes. According to expert estimates to compensate for a first approximation, the damage from man-made activities, States need to spend at the Geological Protection Program at least 20% of GNP. Currently, this value is in the affluent countries at best a few percent, including disadvantaged in Russia - less than one percent. Investment in housing may be as high as 10%. But the cost of building eco-housing can both be considered investments, and for environmental purposes.
Problems of the financial system
Obviously the solution of environmental problems, not least financial security depends. Analyzing financing nature protection problems must first be borne in mind is not the number of banknotes, and the mechanism of circulation of money, ie, financial system as a whole. It can be argued that current world financial system is a parasite. Parasitic inherent in the mechanism of the loan at fixed interest rates. What is it exactly known for thousands of years, but now a fact for obvious reasons, simply hushed up. Such authoritative figures from different times as Aristotle, Jesus, Mohammed, Luther, Zwingli, Gandhi understood the problem and condemned the charging of interest.
According to the well-known modern ecology Margrit Kennedy`s current financial system is in principle not able to adequately fund environmental :"... in the modern system of money circulation, we have only the choice between environmental and economic catastrophe. " Thus the necessary funding for environmental protection under the current system of cash flow is impossible. The interested reader can find more detailed zzlozhenie issue Margrit Kennedy`s book "Money without interest and inflation rate (as a medium of exchange serves each). Sweden. 1993. 96C.
Integrative properties of the eco-housing
One of the features of ecological housing is its property of integrating around a variety of positive trends. It is hard to find a constructive initiative or movement that would not compatible with eco-houses and would not have won from the union of Sneem. Therefore, Green Buildings and ecosettlements based on them be regarded as integrating the growing point of the new socio-political system that does not conflict with the natural environment.
Eco-housing as a self-developing phenomenon
Eco-housing after it with examples proves its advantages and availability, will become an attractive target for all bolshengo number of people. The more knowledge will be spread all about him, his qualities and advantages of the more eco-houses will be built. Thus using a relatively modest cost will be possible to initiate a massive self-sustaining process.
Demographic problem
Ecological housing can be regarded as a universal remedy for current problems, for which probably there is no contraindication. However, it is worth noting that it may ultimately prove to be not effective in the long term, if the parallel will not solve the problem of overpopulation.
In general, demographic issues are very complex and in each region they have their own specifics, down to change the sign.
The value of eco-housing in Russia
Among the major geographical features of Russia is its northern location and the huge extent of land. In this she is unique. Now officially in the northern areas is over 80% of the country. Therefore, the energy efficiency of residential sector have for her special znachenie.Krome that Russia is currently still in a state where development ekodomostroeniya for it is especially necessary and, on the other side to this is an opportunity. This is due to unresolved housing problem, the need for conversion of military-industrial complex, while the presence of the many essential technologies, unemployment, low energy efficiency of the economy. It is known that the intensification of housing among other things is an effective means of pulling the economy out of crisis and raising living standards.
Green Buildings are able to provide a high level of domestic comfort in any of including non-urban settlements, which will undoubtedly make your stay in non-urban settlements is very attractive. Thus, eco-housing will contribute to raise the prestige of rural life and the revival of villages.
Construction Environment Housing - a strategically important scientific, technical, economic, social and political trends. Now it is in its infancy. Those countries that used to continue to advance along this path will have a real advantage in the near future, because it would mean a breakthrough in dealing with many sensitive issues of modern society.
Achieve stabilization or even improvement of ecological situation at least within national borders - a very difficult task for modern societies. If Russia had succeeded in its territory environmental change tend to improve, it would be a significant contribution to solving global problems, since it takes 1 / 8 of total surface area. With the broad development ekodomostroeniya the task is not impracticable.
Pritritetnost development programs ekodomostroeniya
Positive effects of the transition to eco-housing in any society are numerous and not limited only to the material sphere. It is not difficult to specify for each region and not only material, useful effects on the construction of eco-houses and ecosettlements. At the same time it is difficult to find an example where the consequences would have been the construction of eco-housing could be negative.
Thus the idea of development is unprecedented ekodomostroeniya obviously effective and promising, and therefore would require the unconditional and priority funding for its development. Given its importance to national security and further development of the state she was supposed to be financed with no mensheystepenyu priority than at the time of a nuclear weapons and their means of delivery.
Transition
It is clear that it would be desirable to quickly replace an existing dwelling on the environmental. But the reality is that it will be impossible to do without a transition period that can not be shorter due to the fact that the construction industry itself and the housing sector have a certain inertia.
Some of the existing housing permits vozhmozhnost its reconstruction in terms of approximation of its parameters to the environmental housing. This opportunity should not be neglected. A certain part of the housing stock is constantly taken out of service because of vyraotki his life. The most significant change is now five-story building. In this case also advisable to consider replacing them with low-rise ecological housing. Perhaps some time will have to solve the problem of early removal of all modern high-rise housing.
The process of ecological reconstruction of the existing housing stock or replacement of its eco-housing can take several decades, but many positive effects show up fairly quickly - to increase employment, there will be some recovery in manufacturing industries decreased nagruka on the environment, etc.
Eco-housing and humanitarian issues
The concept of eco-housing among other things has a humanitarian and a legal component. In the constitutions of many countries have already introduced the right of people to live in a healthy environment. But such a right under the current ecological state of the state of crisis and aggravated by the negative trends will be increasingly less achievable, and therefore all the more like a declaration of intent. Much more sensible would be to develop and prinyatiezakonov the rights of citizens on the ecological way of life in terms of availability of environmental housing related environmental style of consumption and a safe environment for employment. They would have a clear, concrete meaning and affordable mechanism for implementation by encouraging the construction of eco-housing and the attendant economic activity. It would be understandable and workable concrete programs and activities. Government activities in this area would be transparent and easy to estimate, would yield to public scrutiny.
Thus in this area opens the field for the political and social activities of the various environmental movements, and activities of specific and constructive, which is now among environmentalists is clearly lacking.
The evolution of ecological concepts
Development of environmental thought in the past has passed a number of desyatilentiya etapoyv. The first - which may include the sixties - the first half of the seventies, characterized by the fact that environmental journalism was mainly aimed at proving and developing the thesis that the continuation of the current trends leads to ekologichsesky deadlock. It was alarmist period during which preobladvla negative information about what is required waiver from the previous guidance of development. Characteristic of this period can be considered sensational at the time the Club of Rome report The Limits to Growth "raises questions about the B depletion of natural resources.
With the passage of time has become more urgent question "what do you do?". The second stage can be identified as a time when there were some serious attempts to give a detailed answer to this question. Their number can be called the World Conservation Strategy of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, UN Report "Our Common Future, who coined the concept of sustainable development, a set of documents adopted at a meeting in Rio in 1992, the program apredlozhennye Institute of the World observation in Washington. All these and similar documents are often voluminous and meticulously designed one pass over the property have in common - they are not feasible.
All of them resemble a large ledger which meticulously lists the negative environmental processes and straightforwardly calculated how much could cost them stop and reverse the development posleduschego sposobamiv known within the existing political and economic conditions. Example - deforestation. Calculated what funds are needed to achieve a balanced forest management in different countries, and some recovery of forests on previously deforested areas. Then summed up the necessary financial and other resources. By similar schemes are calculated amount and other issues. As a result, obtained after addition of the astronomical sums neobhodimvh resources. Thus it turns out that the problem is solved under the assumption that resource constraints, while real global environmental issues has, on the contrary, very stringent resource constraints, and including time. And the point is not that the necessary resources in the world do not, they are just as convincingly demonstrates the political realities in the modern world, where radiraemom clear where the mask of mutual struggle and controversy, even several times smaller than calculated, the resources allocated to nature conservation will not. "However, until now at the political level was not taken any decision to move the world towards sustainable type of development. In many countries continue to underestimate the need for such steps, and politicians more concerned with overcoming the current crisis, rather than creating conditions for sustainable and sustainable development. "- although this quote is taken from the publication of [World 80] in 1988, the situation has not really changed.
It would be incorrect to assume on this basis that these programs were useless, for the time they were a step forward in the evolution of environmental thought and, apparently, a necessary stage in its raevitiya. Thus in an evolutionary context, they played polzhitelnuyu role, but the question "what to do" did not answer, because almost unfeasible.
All these theoretical models usually implicitly emanate from the plant, according to which environmental problems can be solved by environmental means, within the existing political institutions. However, those who have limited technological and industrial environmental issues offer in fact, only half-measures. The technology and production are secondary, they are the result of specific political, ideological, and social development. This same idea is expressed in more diplomatic language, is contained. For example, in one of the conclusions of the World Commission on Environment and Development [....] :"... the main difficulties in solving environmental problems are not technical but political, economic and social character: the lack of political will and institutional capacity, lack of financial resources or the reluctance to allocate them to achieve environmental objectives, as well as conflicts, differences and inequalities characteristic of our society and the achievement of our consensus on what and how we should do and how to pay for it. "
Thus the keys to real solutions to environmental problems lie in the fields of politics, ideology, morality, or rather in their rather radical change. And if the critics of morality and consumer psychology, modern society among environmentalists enough, when it comes to assessing the foundations of modern political system, there are timid or SILENCING. Deol And here, apparently, not only in the fact that the experts, environmentalists are people too and they too want to get paid, probably affects the well-founded fear of possible chaos that might arise during the destruction of existing political system. It is known that there is always more productive to fight for something, not against something else. In other words, if not offered a constructive program, it is better not to call for the destruction of the existing order of things, to avoid the worst consequences. Thus, now in the environmental movement there is a need for meaningful and realistic ekolgicheskih concepts, practical nominate effective programs.
It is logical to assume that Next> stage in the environmental movement will be associated with the nomination and the beginning of the implementation of an effective, in the full sense of meaningful environmental programs and concepts. It is obvious that such programs should possess two important properties - to provide significant positive environmental impact and at the same time demand for their implementation quite limited, realistically available financial, organizational, labor, etc. resources. Described in this paper, the concept of ecological housing seems to have this character.
Constructibility of the concept of eco-housing
Begin the construction of eco-housing can be in any country, anywhere. You do not need any either specific or intractable conditions that will need only a relatively small funds sufficient for the construction of several homes. Then, the process can become self-developing. Along the way, will reorient production to meet demand for new types of materials and equipment for eco-houses and other related processes. Thus the construction of eco-housing program is completely vypolnimaoy and constructive, can lead to large positive environmental change and to facilitate the resolution of other environmental problems.
The unity of the biosphere and the global challenge
Biosphere, by definition, is that part of the Earth in which life is concentrated. As environmentalists see it is not a mechanical sum of various including living material, and a single tesono interconnected hierarchical system. This fact is important because it implies the possibility of reaction of the biosphere on the technological impact tollko not piecemeal, but as a whole. The nature of this reaction is predicted as a historically rapid and, after the start, unstoppable transition of the biosphere at a low and primitive level of functioning. The area of regions suitable for human life will be reduced, their quality will deteriorate and the capacity of the Earth`s population will decrease. This dramatic situation is similar to a sinking ship which is not enough lifeboats. This will be the one they call an ecological catastrophe. By virtually unanimous opinion of environmentalists before the phase of catastrophic changes remained 20-30 years. Evaluation of Lester Brown, director of a reputable institution of the World observation published in 1990: "... if the planet has come to stability, it needs to be done in the next 40 years. If during this time we do not succeed, the depletion of natural resources and the economic downturn spurring each other are likely to face us in the abyss of social disintegration. "
From this it follows that in the face of such danger mankind is in the same boat. And this situation in the history of voznikaket the first time. Previously the event of disaster affected individual regions or affect them in varying degrees. Had the opportunity to migrate to correct things at the expense of wealthier regions. Eklogichesky cataclysm such a possibility does not provide. In the geopolitical literature, this situation is described as the first global challenge, the answer to which can only be given joint coordinated efforts of all countries.
But on the other side is becoming increasingly evident that such a union of all countries in the face of common danger, the deadline will not be. The current political reality is replete with all sorts of conflict, confrontation, tension. And these trends are increasing. The reason, apparently, not least in that privileged players in the arena mezhdunarodnooy hope for priority access to "lifeboats" and rushing to consolidate their domination.
Wide dissemination of ecological housing in this background will play a dual role, on the one hand it can reduce stress and increase nabiosferu global reserve time with a nother - to increase the chances for survival anywhere where it will be built. In this sense of what it would svoeoyuraznym pass in the future.
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Content tags: Ecology Housing
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