In this article we will discuss the following air pollutants: formaldehyde, asbestos, radon, tobacco smoke, combustion products, chemicals used in everyday life, Pesticides, Microorganisms, allergens, mold
Related article: In one house to live?Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a colorless, flammable gas with a sharp suffocating odor. This is the most important aldehyde produced for commercial purposes, and is used in obtaining ureoaldegidnyh fenolaldegidnyh and adhesives. He also released during the oxidation of organic materials and is part of the smoke. Impact on health. Under the influence of formaldehyde on the human body has a triple effect: irritant, sensitizing and carcinogenic. Formaldehyde has a pronounced irritant effect for the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract. Common symptoms associated with the action of formaldehyde - an inflammation of the eyes, nose and throat, headache and nausea. Formaldehyde may increase the sensitivity of the organism, which in turn can lead to symptoms like asthma and skin reactions. Some people under the influence of formaldehyde developed symptoms of asthma. These symptoms include shortness of breath and chest tightness. It is also known cases of urticaria, as the effects of inhalation of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde also has a sensitizing effect. This effect was observed in patients who were on dialysis and those who are constantly exposed to formaldehyde in small doses. Formaldehyde is also characterized as a probable human carcinogen, and has been recognized as such by the National Institute of Safety and Health at Work (U.S.). The U.S. Administration on safety and health at work and the Department of Labor and Industries Washington State approved standards for which the level of concentration of formaldehyde in the eight-hour exposure should not exceed 0.75 GPa (millionth of a share), and 2 MD - the limit for short-term exposure to 15 minutes. National Institute of Safety and Health at Work recommends .016 expectation for an eight-hour continuous exposure and 0.1 md limit at 15 minute exposure. U.S. Agency for engineers in the field of heating, refrigeration and air conditioning should not extend beyond the level of 0.1 md prolonged exposure. In many countries, standards for maximum allowable level of formaldehyde in indoor air ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 md. The smell of formaldehyde being felt at the values ??of 0.05 to 1 md. At concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 md begins clearly felt eye irritation. At concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 2.7 md scientific reports have reported tearing, burning and cramps in his eyes. Reports to report respiratory tract irritation, even at a concentration of 0.1 md, but usually it occurs at concentrations ranging from 1 to 11 md. Symptoms range from dryness in the throat, tingling in the nose to throat irritation. However, respiratory tract irritation at concentrations ranging from 5 to 30 md causes coughing, chest tightness, shortness of breath. Chronic exposure to formaldehyde at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 8.9 md causes changes in the mucous nasopharynx, there are complaints of throat irritation, decreased sensitivity to odors, dry throat. Formaldehyde also contributes to the development of asthma is the cause of her acute attacks. High levels (50-100 md) cause pulmonary edema and hit them in the liquid, as well as pneumonia. Formaldehyde exposure with the concentration level of more than 100 MD can be fatal. Sources. The main source of formaldehyde in homes are the building materials. These products may contain phenolic and urea resins comprising formaldehyde. It is also used in paper production, photo production and garment production. Formaldehyde is also used in the final stages of print production, it can be found in adhesives, which are involved in the manufacture of furniture. Products containing ureaformaldegidnye resins are the most common source of it in residential areas. Its use is permitted in such materials as plywood, wall panels and insulating materials. Ureaformaldegidnye emit free formaldehyde resin, along with the release of formaldehyde as a result of chemical degradation. Degradation of formaldehyde resins can occur when these materials become wet from exposure to high humidity, or if formaldegidsoderzhaschie materials soaked with water as a result of fluid leakage or flooding. Vysvobozhenie formaldehyde occurs when the acid catalyst in the formula resins reactivated. Number of formaldehyde also increases with increasing temperature and increasing relative humidity. Control methods. Prevention of problems associated with exposure to formaldehyde, is best achieved by monitoring formaldegidsoderzhaschimi products. The choice of materials, generally do not contain formaldehyde or containing minor amounts, is to solve this problem ideal. An alternative choice of materials is filtering, isolation and disinfection. Filtering can be achieved using specific adsorbents. Insulation is provided by placing the aforementioned formaldegidsoderzhaschih materials in two or three-layer membrane of the nitro-pulp varnish or water-based polyurethane. A three-layer shell of these materials can reduce the amount of formaldehyde fumes up to 90%. Professional treatment of ammonia gas also minimizes the evaporation of formaldehyde. Measuring the presence of formaldehyde by either passive meter, or an active meter in real time, or sorbentovymi Colorimetric tubes. These devices can be purchased from manufacturers of industrial hygiene products.
Asbestos - a group of fibrous minerals that are chemically related to hydrosilicate. There are three main types of types of asbestos: it krizolit (white), crocidolite (blue) and amosite (brown). Characteristics such as asbestos flexibility, strength, durability incombustibility and determined their widespread use. Krizolit is about 95% of the total use of asbestos, and it is assumed that it is less pathogenic than the products of other forms of asbestos. Sources. Materials containing asbestos may be present in many foods, household products, as well as in many places, both inside and outside the premises. Asbestos fabrics make protective suits for firefighters, mittens for steelworkers, thermal insulation for pipes, which serves the steam and hot water, electrical insulation materials, asbestos-cement plates and tubes, filters for delay of radioactive dust, chemical laboratory equipment (ropes, blankets, stands for heating , insulation and thermostats, calorimeters). A mixture of asbestos crumbs with silicate adhesive, and then treated with calcium chloride solution, forms an excellent fire-resistant putty. In the presence of polymeric binders of asbestos fibers are asbovoloknit of paper - asbogetinaks of fabrics - asbotekstolit. The proportion of asbestos in these asboplastikah can range from 50 to 70%. Such composite materials are used for the manufacture of the collectors of electric machines, blade pumps, clutch discs and brake pads, parts, chemical devices, thermal barrier coatings of rockets and spacecraft. But the bulk of the mined asbestos (80%) is consumed in the construction, for example, for the manufacture of asbestos - a common roofing material. Many saw asbestos cement pipes, which are not afraid of corrosion, their use and how water and how sewage. A great need for asbestos led to his production during the 20 century. increased almost 200 times and is now in the millions tons per year. Impact on health. Conducted in different countries epidemiological studies clearly demonstrated that inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause a number of dangerous diseases. Among them - asbestosis, the most common form of silicosis, which occurs in workers engaged in the production slate, asbestos cement pipes and other products using asbestos. Asbestosis manifests itself in 5-10 years of regular exposure to asbestos dust in the form of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumosclerosis. Asbestos can also cause lung cancer and mesothelioma - a malignancy in the pleura. In this case, the latent (hidden), the period can be up to ten years. At the same carcinogenic properties likely to be associated not with the composition of asbestos, and the shape of its fibers and their high chemical inertness. The results indicate that both the workers and the general population the incidence of mesothelioma is proportional to the concentration of fibers in the air and the time elapsed since first exposure. It is important to note that at equal risk of asbestos exposure for smokers is about 10 times higher than non-smokers. Thus, out of a million people become ill during the life of lung cancer, provoked by asbestos, twenty-smokers and only two non-smokers. At present it is impossible to offer a safe level concentrations of asbestos in the air, as is not known whether the threshold concentration of its fibers, below which asbestos is safe. Therefore, the concentration of asbestos are encouraged to support at the lowest possible level. In the chemical laboratory at the sloppy use of asbestos levels in air can be quite high. Thus, harmful fibers may simply blown air flows from the boxes to asbestos through the slightest gap. And even the dense compact asbestos may eventually crumble and give asbestos dust. Often assume that the asbestos should be wary of only those who are in direct contact with him in the course of their professional activities. Why, then raised the alarm American doctors? One of the leading authorities on the Effects of asbestos on the body Irving Selikoff of New York University argues that the asbestos, hitting one in the lungs, have to stand back and can not remain in them forever. Consequent disease - asbestosis and mesothelioma, an incurable malignant really usually develop very slowly - after 20-30 years after exposure to asbestos in the lungs. There was, for example, the case where a woman died from a tumor in the lung at the age of 37 years, were exposed to asbestos in childhood: asbestos fibers were in the clothes of her father. The Western press regularly publish articles and correspondence in which the authors insist on the cessation of production of asbestos and its products (the thousand names, and almost everywhere asbestos "connected" with rubber, plastic, cement or other substances and materials). Chemists who have dealt asbestos and makes of it, such as refractories, know that this stuff over time begins to crumble and become friable. stored in cabinets and desk drawers scraps of asbestos also "pylyat", and the lightest invisible asbestos fibrils are easily carried into the room air flows. And who knows what is their concentration in the air we breathe. Control methods. Methods of control for exposure to asbestos can be reduced, basically, any export of a product containing asbestos, or modifications to this product. Minor surface damage can be repaired with adhesive insulating tape or other products which are used for sealing. Removal should be performed only in cases where it is needed. Although this procedure can in principle be carried out by the owner of the premises, but a strong recommendation to bring to this end are well-trained professionals. These workers must be knowledgeable about the rules Safety on the export of asbestos, reliable method of liquidation, and equipped with necessary safety equipment. Safety Information on the export of asbestos, reliable method of liquidation, and on the protective equipment available at the local health department, sanitary surveillance, local offices of MES.
Radon is a chemically inert, naturally occurring radioactive gas without odor, color and taste. It is produced from radium in the decay chain of radium - an element found in varying amounts in all rocks and soils in the world. Radon gas escapes easily from the soil into the air and disintegrates through short-lived products called radon progeny. These daughter products that emit alpha particles with high ionizing ability, can be electrically charged and attach to aerosols, dust and other particles in the air we breathe. As a result, radon progeny may be deposited on the cells lining the airways where the alpha particles can damage DNA and potentially cause lung cancer. Sources. Most people exposed to high radon exposure at home. The concentration of radon in a home depends on the amount of radon radium contained in rocks and soils, and ways of its penetration in the home and the rate of exchange between outdoor and indoor air. Radon gas enters houses through openings such as cracks at concrete floor-wall junctions, gaps in the floor, small pores in hollow-block walls, and through sumps and drains. Therefore, in basements, cellars or other structural areas in contact with soil, radon levels are usually higher. In specific geological formations found, for example, in many European countries, radon released from underground waters easily permeates through the rock to the surface and into buildings. Concentration. Radon radioactivity is measured in becquerels (Bq). One becquerel corresponds to the transformation (disintegration) of one atomic nucleus per second. Radon concentration in air is measured as the number of transformations per second in one cubic meter of air (Bq/m3). The average radon level outdoors varies from 5 to 15 Bq/m3, while there are both lower and higher levels. In a series of surveys, the global mean indoor radon concentration was estimated to be 39 Bq/m3, with marked variation between countries reported by the Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Very high radon concentrations (> 1000 Bq/m3) were found in countries where houses are built on soils with high content of radium and / or high permeability. In many countries there are tens of thousands of houses with indoor radon concentrations above levels considered acceptable. The only way to know the concentration of radon in your apartment / house - is to make the necessary measurements. Impact on health. The main health hazard is an increased risk of lung cancer from high radon exposure. This is evidenced in many studies of uranium miners. Based on these studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO agency specializing in cancer, and the U.S. National Toxicology Program have classified radon as a human carcinogen. Scientists have also conducted studies to find out whether levels of radon in homes and other places of grave danger to human health. Currently, these studies have been completed, and the pooled analysis of key studies in Europe, North America and China have confirmed that radon in homes contributes substantially to the development of lung cancer worldwide. According to recent estimates, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to radon range from 6 to 15%. This amplitude of risk assessment pooling studies all agree. Control methods. Radon levels in indoor air can be reduced in several ways - from sealing cracks in floors and walls to increasing the ventilation of buildings. Below are five basic ways to reduce the amount of radon accumulating in a house: * Improving the ventilation of the house and prevent radon from the basement into living rooms; * Gain floor ventilation; * Installing a radon sump system in the basement; * Sealing floors and walls; and * Ventilation system with positive pressure ventilation or air-supply system.
Tobacco smoke is a major contributor to air pollution in apartments and other premises. More than 4,000 chemical elements are included in tobacco smoke. 40 of them are either known or suspected of being carcinogenic. The most harmful of these is carbon monoxide, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, nicotine, cadmium and numerous carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Tobacco smoke from the air, which is formed directly by burning tobacco contains up to 50 times higher concentration of carcinogenic substances, than going through the filter and exhaled smoke due to lower combustion temperatures. . Contribution of tobacco smoke, which is produced directly by burning tobacco, the overall proportion of the combustion products of cigarettes is 90%. Tobacco smoke is also a major source of respirable mikrovzvesi. Smoke from burning wood and its products, unventilated petrol installation, kerosene heaters also contribute to the concentration of respirable mikrovzvesi indoors. These studies show that the concentration of suspended particles in public buildings and private homes where smoking is permitted, often exceeds even the 24-hour standard for air in the open space standards of the Agency for Environmental Protection. Impact on health. Impact on health of tobacco smoke from the air began to study not long ago. The acuteness of exposure for passive smoking are often dependent on the person who is exposed to tobacco smoke. The main effects from exposure to tobacco smoke may include: irritation of the eyes, nose and throat cough, headache, nausea, high blood pressure, heart palpitations, elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin. Some categories of people particularly affected by tobacco smoke during passive smoking: asthma and other respiratory diseases. Many studies have shown negative effects of tobacco smoke on children of smokers. These studies revealed a direct relationship with respiratory problems and the deterioration of pulmonary function. Infants and children up to two years are most susceptible to the effects of tobacco smoke. The risk of sudden death in infants who find themselves in the role of passive smokers are three times higher than among those who are not. Children of smoking parents are also observed, and other health problems, including scattering of attention and reduction of disability, progressive disability and problems with the organs of respiration. It has long been known that smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, larynx, mouth, esophagus and other organs, as well as heart disease. The link between passive smoking and cancer diseases is obvious. More and more medical evidence obtained on the relationship between passive smoking and lung cancer and heart disease. Research conducted among non-wives whose husbands smoked showed that the risk of heart attack they have three times higher than non-wives whose husbands do not smoke. Passive smoking is the most harmful type of indoor air pollution. Control methods. Only a complete cessation of smoking on the premises is a guarantee of the smoke-free air. Other control methods mostly limited to enhanced ventilation, the use of air purifiers, or restrict smoking. Hoods, such as electrostatic filters, only partly solve this problem, because only remove microscopic particles, but it does not affect the gas component of tobacco smoke. Byproducts of combustion. Products of combustion of flammable substances may be the source of elevated concentrations of gases and particulates. Among the most harmful by-products of combustion are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NOx) and respirable mikrovzves. Other by-products may include sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, and organic vapors. The most common source of combustion by-products are unventilated kerosene heaters, gas stoves, wood stoves and tobacco smoke.
Carbon monoxide (CO) gas is colorless and odorless, which is produced as the result is complete combustion. Carbon monoxide is a poison that binds hemoglobin, the molecule is responsible for the blood to transport oxygen. Due to the fact that the ability of carbon monoxide binding to hemoglobin 250 times higher than that of oxygen, high concentrations in the air and prolonged exposure can lead to high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (SONb) in the blood. Carboxyhemoglobin is carbon monoxide bound to hemoglobin. As the level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood increases less and less remains free hemoglobin to carry oxygen. This lack of ability of blood to carry oxygen leads to what is called carbon monoxide poisoning. Impact on health. Acute symptoms occur when exposed to carbon monoxide is well known. The relatively small impact can cause headache, dizziness, decreased attentiveness, decreased coordination, fatigue, disorientation, lethargy, chest pain (in patients with cardiovascular diseases), nausea, visual disturbances. Stronger or prolonged exposure may lead to unconsciousness and death. The severity of symptoms depends on the concentration of carbon monoxide exposure duration and degree of physical activity and human health. People who are exposed to prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide during an active physical activity, reaching the maximum concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. Even a small concentration of carbon monoxide can pose a threat to human health at risk. These are people with heart disease who suffer from sickle-cell disease (anemia Guericke), anemia (anemia). Age and overall health also affect the sensitivity to carbon monoxide. Even small concentrations of carbon monoxide can interfere with fetal development. Angina and reduced oxygen supply to the heart can lead to increased levels of carboxyhemoglobin to 2,5 - 4,9 per cent in patients with cardiovascular disease. In healthy people, the scattering of attention, disorientation, impairment of the central nervous system and confusion arise when carboxyhemoglobin concentrations between 4 and 6 percent. Remember that as the symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure, you may develop confusion, and you will not be able to make decisions that may save your life. Sources. International standards for air quality outdoors regulate the maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide not exceeding 9 GPa (millionth of a share) during an eight-hour exposure, and 35 MD in a one-hour exposure. These standards are designed to prevent negative effects for people with cardiovascular disease and for those engaged in physical labor. These standards may be exceeded in the major metropolitan areas due to vehicular movement and during weather inversions. Weather inversion occurs when cold stable air layers are formed on top of warm air. This "locks" pollution under a stable layer of cold, which leads to a significant increase in the concentration of pollutants, including carbon monoxide. If on the above, the concentration of pollution outdoors, in proportion to this increase and the level of pollutants indoors. If there is a source of carbon monoxide inside the building, the CO level will be higher indoors than outside. Technique. Home wood stoves, gas stoves, gas heaters water, gas, kerosene and oil heaters can also be a source of carbon monoxide formation. The heating season is a time when you want to pay special attention to the danger of carbon monoxide. Necessary to test the gas and oil heaters, which do not enjoy the warm summer months. Be sure to make cleaning and maintenance of furnaces in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Winter is also a time when people use indoor heating. It is very important that this use of kerosene specified class. Using the wrong fuel chosen leads to increased formation of carbon monoxide. The color of the flame is a typical indicator for determining the quality of fuel combustion in the respective devices. The flame should burn bright blue flame. Yellow indicates a lack of combustion, probably due to the fuel or the burner. Ideally, the air used for combustion must not be drawn from the premises. Newer furnace pick up air from outside, and it reduces the possibility of reverse thrust. Devices that use combustion air from the room, make it easier to education reverse thrust, which is formed when the smoke from the chimney, which includes and carbon monoxide, tightened back up the chimney into the living room. This may be due to strong winds, or in tight buildings, where exhaust fans are operating without adequate replenishment of air. Backdraft can be formed by a blocked chimney or partially blocked flue. Chimneys should be inspected regularly. Interruptions in power supply this time of heightened risk. During these outages, people often resort to use of kerosene home heaters, fireplaces, gas stoves, barbecues and even for space heating. Do not use the barbecue and gas stoves for heating. If air is used to heat the unventilated room heaters that run on fuel, you need to slightly open up the windows and provide fresh air into the living room. Also, gas stove should not be used in the absence of extracts, such as exhaust fans or hoods that are brought out. Burning. Tobacco smoke, including passive smoking, a significant source of carbon monoxide indoors. Smokers have higher levels of carboxyhemoglobin than nonsmokers, the level of carboxyhemoglobin increased by passive smoking. Smokers tend levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood is 5-6%. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in nonsmokers is 0.5%, while in passive smoking in nonsmokers carboxyhemoglobin level was raised to 3 - 4%. Cars. Carbon monoxide is produced by the left in the running condition of the car in the garage, can accumulate and enter the residential premises. Journey to the trailers is especially great risk for children. Washington State University reported on the death and loss of consciousness and other symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure on children who were traveling on the covered bed of the truck. Carbon dioxide accumulates in this area because of the shape of the truck, which creates turbulence, which in turn may reduce the pressure on the platform of the truck, and tighten the exhaust gases in the indoor part of the caravan. In no case be traveling in the covered bed of the truck. Each year, recorded cases of deaths related to carbon monoxide poisoning. Most of these deaths are related to the penetration of exhaust gases into the cabins and vans. Make sure there is sufficient ventilation. Is important to have the cars and trucks sealed exhaust system. Security measures. To prevent the accumulation or decrease the concentration of carbon monoxide, it is necessary to ensure that ventilation during the operation of the devices employed by the combustion of fuel, not to leave the car running in closed garages, keep exhaust system in working condition. If you have the home has appliances that run on fuel burn, you may wish to acquire alarm responsive to carbon monoxide. These devices are very similar to an alarm responsive to smoke, and warn residents about exceeding safe concentration levels of carbon monoxide. Also, there are control devices that change color upon detection of carbon monoxide. This technology is not very accurate in measuring the level of carbon monoxide. Gas companies take measurements in homes for the content of carbon monoxide at the request of clients, in the case of a suspected gas leak, the presence of the smell of burning, or symptoms similar to symptoms of carbon monoxide. If you think that there is a threat to high concentrations of carbon monoxide, act immediately: leave the area, call the emergency services, and do not return to the premises until full settlement of the problem with carbon monoxide. Severe carbon monoxide poisoning symptoms require medical resuscitation.
Nitrogen oxides are very toxic gas with a pronounced irritant effect and pungent odor. Sources. The main source of nitrogen oxides are the devices that run on gas combustion. Concentration. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) indoor ranges from 0.03 to 0.5 md from a peak of 0.7 md, measurements are made in kitchens and other rooms, while using a traditional gas stove and unventilated gas appliances. Standard Agency for Environmental Protection for the indoor air is 0.05 md. Typically, the concentration inside the room does not exceed the standard, except during and immediately after the use of an unventilated gas appliances. Impact on health. Inhalation of nitrogen dioxide may cause effects similar to effects of carbon monoxide. Nitrogen oxides react with hemoglobin in the blood, reducing the ability of blood to carry oxygen and increasing the voltage of the cardiovascular system. Nitrogen oxides also cause temporary and prolonged damage to the airways and lung tissue. Several studies have shown that children living in homes with gas appliances, there is increased susceptibility to small airways disease and low functioning respiratory system. Respirable suspended particulates. Respirable suspended particulates are particles of organic or inorganic origin, which are in the air in a suspended state and their size allows them to penetrate into the lungs. These particulates are particles ranging in size from 2.5 to 10 microns. Sources. One of the main sources is tobacco smoke. Now there is growing evidence that smoke from burning wood is also one of the main sources. Also unventilated gas appliances and kerosene heaters in the process of throwing into the air suspended particulates. Concentration. There are no standards for respirable suspended particulates. EPA, however, found the average rate for the outdoor air 15 micrograms per cubic meter, and a maximum 24-hour standard is 65 micrograms per cubic meter for particulates of 2.5 microns. The rate for outdoor air for particles of 10 microns is set at 50 micrograms per cubic meter, and the maximum 24-hour standard is 150 micrograms per cubic meter. As already noted, these standards are often exceeded in indoor air, when they allowed smoking. Impact on health. Respirable suspended particulates contain a large number of components. Radon and benzene, suspected to be carcinogens transported by suspended particulates inhaled into the lungs. Respiratory diseases, especially chronic, such as bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma may be associated with suspended particulates, or the disease may be more difficult. Control methods. Approaches to control for suspended particulate matter are reduced to improve combustion efficiency for various kinds of household equipment such as gas stoves, kerosene heaters, stoves, fireplaces, as well as adequate ventilation. Control methods for respirable suspended particulates, tobacco smoke, allergens and microorganisms, in general, about the same. Household chemicals. Sources. Many consumer products emit gaseous and particulate pollutants during use or storage. Consumer products such as cleaners, waxes, paints, adhesives, detergents, liquid paint stripper, preparations for dry cleaners, deodorizers, pesticides, solvents, and many others can be a source of both organic and inorganic pollutants. Aerosols, which are widely used for sales of cleaners, waxes, pesticides, varnishes, paints, glues, deserve special attention, unnecessarily sprayed the contents in a form suitable for inhalation. Each use of these products may lead to penetration into the air significant amounts of particulates, solvents and liquids. Additional sources of volatile chemicals in indoor air are plastics, textiles, building materials and carpets, which can emit small amounts of contaminants, but for a long time. Impact on health. A large variety of chemicals used in consumer products and materials complicate the discussion of specific chemicals to their potential negative effect on health. Injury associated with long-term effects of low levels of contaminants that are prevalent in the premises, so far not been investigated at a sufficient level. Deliberate misuse of aerosols and solvents in confined spaces can end acute and chronic disorders and even death. Control methods. The main methods of control is to replace the chemicals used and forced ventilation. Increased awareness and concern of the society this issue has led producers to use less toxic chemicals in consumer products and produce more products in a non-aerosol form. In addition, consumers have become more careful about choosing products to use it. Pesticides. Sources. Pesticides are chemical or biological substances used to destroy, to prevent the emergence of insects, weeds, rodents, and other parasitic organisms. Report of the Agency for Environmental Protection from 1976 -77 years showed that in the U.S. for more than 90% of households using pesticides, and more than 80% use them indoors. Twelve of the most commonly used pesticides are insecticides. Some of the most widely used pesticides are a disinfectant (antibacterial agents). The survey revealed that 90% of households use disinfectants or liquid form or as aerosols. Pesticide use in the residence can be done living in it or people responsible for the maintenance of buildings that use application-ready products, or organizations that control the sanitary condition of the premises. Sometimes, the cause of pesticides indoors is getting through the open windows and doors from outside. In addition to the direct use of pesticides in indoor air, there are other sources that constantly evaporated chemicals in residential areas. For example, the penetration of chemical fumes, insecticides through the floor and walls of the cellar and basement dwelling, the evaporation residues of chemicals for treatment of cracks in the building, and evaporation from air fresheners and insect repellents. In many areas of construction is taking measures of protection against ants Dry wood borers and termites. Some of these pesticides can remain in their homes for months or even years after their use. For example, chlordane (an insecticide to protect against termites and ants) were found even 20 years after application. Even the so-called short of the pesticides remain indoors for much longer than outside, because where they are protected from sunlight, water and other factors contributing to their degradation. Impact on health. A large number of pesticides applied both inside and outside the premises, making it impossible to analyze the symptoms and adverse effects of each individual pesticide. The health hazards associated with long-term inhalation of low concentrations of pesticides has not been as follows studied. In addition to actually pesticides has approximately 1,200 inert ingredients are currently registered for use as part of pesticide preparations. They include solvents, emulsifiers, and aids. Adequate data in toxicology has only one-third of these additives. EPA is seriously concerned by the negative impact on the health of approximately 120 agents. Correct assessment of health effects of airborne pesticides and their quantities are very important. And although there are standards for permitted facilities for pesticides, they do not always have the correct attitude for the situation in their homes, because calculated using a five-day workweek and 8 hours a day. If the level of concentration in a residential area exceeds this rate, the concentration is uniquely dangerous. However, if the concentration of any chemical not exceed this rate, it does not mean that the concentration is safe for inhabitants of the house. Housewives and children can spend inside the house up to 21 hours a day, almost three times more 8-hour workday. In addition, a child, elderly or sick people may be more susceptible to the effects of small doses of pesticides. Control methods. There are no special techniques in addition to general measures for improving indoor air quality. Additional security measures are expensive and the effect of them is questionable. There are several ways to minimize the levels of pesticides in the premises: * Increase the circulation of fresh air in the room. When weather permits, periodically opening windows and doors, and the fans. In the cellars cleaned or add vents and install fans to be permanently expel the air out. * Isolate the area, which is directly in contact with the treated soil with grout, putty or sealing material. Seal cracks in basements and first floors, walls, around pipes and drains. * Establish a system that will drive the air outdoors inside. * Check the condition of pipes in the basement. Use a special film for the tubes to seal the connections, and cracks.
Microorganisms, allergens and mold. The premises are a large variety of biological material. Sources include practically everything that is inside the premises, but in the first place, people, animals, plants and insects. Impact on health. It is known that many organisms can cause infection, and many more can cause allergies in humans. Inhalation biosoderzhaschih air masses of people and animals is the main reason for respiratory infections, although the equipment for air cooling, humidifiers, vaporizers and diffusers can also create favorable conditions for the development and dissemination biosoderzhaschih air mass and a source of infection. According to the WHO report respiratory infections constitute about 50% of all acute conditions. Pollen, mold, dust mites, animal dander, insect particles are well-known allergens. The effect of the impact of these allergens in people with asthma and allergies is very well researched. Control methods. Many diseases, including respiratory, spread mainly from person to person. Large crowds and poor ventilation can lead to increased concentrations of microorganisms and allergens. There is limited information on the relationship between acute respiratory diseases and the level of ventilation. More common recommendations for preventing the spread of disease are: avoid large gatherings of people, the isolation of infected patients and vaccination. Temperature and humidity are important for many microorganisms, allergens and mildew. For the growth of mold water is needed. Studies have shown a link between respiratory infections and relative humidity. Studies have also shown the dependence of survival and the ability of infecting microorganisms, mites and allergic fungal populations directly dependent on relative humidity. These studies are recommended to maintain relative humidity between 40% and 60% in the premises. Such indicators humidity minimize the negative effect of microorganisms and allergens due to the reduction of their population in the premises. Many micro-organisms and allergens in need of a suitable air temperature. For people with allergies it is recommended to control dust in the room (use of air cleaners) to reduce the concentration of potential allergens in the home. However, it is important to understand that the effectiveness of these devices differs in different models and they should be used together with other methods of monitoring the environment. The first step is to limit the growth of mold is reduced to eliminate sources of moisture. The next step is a fast-drying (24 hours) of wet materials. The smell of mildew and mold itself visible clearly indicate the existence of the problem.
The last step is to treat the surface of five percent bleach solution. Keep in mind that permeable materials such as mattresses and furniture may not cleaned. In this case the removal of material from the mold is the only possible solution.