Christmas. How to celebrate?
Christmas Eve is called "Eve" and the word is derived from the ritual food, partake in the day - sochivo, cooked red wheat or barley, rye, buckwheat, mixed with honey and almonds, and poppy juice.
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Food on Christmas Eve long ago it was impossible to take up the first star, in remembrance of the Star of Bethlehem, proclaiming the Magi and Nativity of the Savior. And at dusk, when the first star on fire, sat at the table and shared the wafer, wishing each other all the best and brightest. However, there is a row it was impossible not only to the first star, but then - the fact that the Christmas meal, though, and announces the end of the 40-day fasting Filippova, in fact - its finale.
Rules of conduct on Christmas Eve is not one hundred years, and in recent years, no one new has been invented. In the afternoon, until he came, all ate sochivo, and with the first star sat at the table.
Holy night. At the banquet table was supposed to distribute the hay - in memory of the Bethlehem manger, which found the baby Jesus to the tablecloth crunched in a literal sense. Utensils were to be the best - for the glory of the Lord. Guests - even, and if odd, then put an extra device. Dishes - always 13, all but the soup cold, so the hostess did not get up from the table in the kitchen.
But first on the table at the Orthodox should appear kutya - the main traditional dishes of the Orthodox Christmas Eve. Kutyu cooked from wheat, pea, rice and barley. Seasoned with honey, poppy, hemp, sunflower or other vegetable oil. Products, of which she prepared, had a symbolic meaning. Grain - a symbol of the resurrected life, honey - the sweet life and health, and the maximum represented the wealth of the family. By long-standing beliefs, the richer and better fed kutya, the better the harvest and prosperity in the family.
The order of food intake regulated by strict rules: first, fed snacks (herring, fish, salads), then red (slightly warmed), borscht, mushroom or fish soup. For soup, mushroom soup, ears or cakes were served with mushrooms, and the Orthodox juicy - roasted hemp oil flour tortillas.
By the end of the meal on the table were served sweet dishes: roll with poppy seeds, cakes, honey cake, cranberry jelly, compote of dried fruits, apples and nuts.
At the table everyone had to eat all the cooked dishes.
The meal was nonalcoholic. All dishes are meatless, grilled and seasoned with vegetable oil, meat without foundation, without milk or cream.
During the luncheon, conducted a casual conversation about the only good deeds. Despite the fact that it was purely a family holiday, it was considered necessary to invite to the table of single friends, neighbors (regardless of their religion). For each table sat a random visitor, including the poor. There was a belief that in this day as a beggar can be brought God. On Christmas Eve, the owner congratulated the holiday and pets, endured a feast, and homeless animals (on the porch, the threshold was exhibited food dish).
Dinner on Christmas Day. But on the very Christmas (January 7) was prepared by a large family dinner, the family set the table. Cooked goose, duck or turkey, baked in the oven and stuffed to the throat with apples or prunes. In addition to game on the holiday table set sausage, ham, jelly, rolls. And again, porridge, only, of course, not on the water and the milk, and slightly waterlogged.
But the chief charm of the Christmas dinner was that by eating hot, you can finally drink. Anything - though white, though red, though brandy, cognac at least - in the choice of alcohol, each was able to afford some improvisation. This rule has remained unchanged remained unchanged to this day.
Entertainment. Appearance of the first star on Christmas Eve looking forward to children, because what started handing out gifts. One of the household, dressed in Santa Claus - St. Nicholas, who also brought gifts in the bag. Distributing them, have expressed reservations, according to the necessary requirements to receive. For the children it was a good educational moment for the adults it was painted share jokes.
In general, most of the traditions and rituals of Christmas was aimed at instilling in children self-discipline, attention to the audience, respect and participation in the ritual side, patience, endurance. It was one of the few cases where children sat at a table with adults.
As for gifts - gifts valued, prepared with his own hands. They were decorated festively colored paper, twigs of spruce, ribbons. Contents gifts should have been a surprise. Everything was fanned by the mystery and uplifting. Gifts immediately unfolded.
Christmas in Ukrainian. Ukrainian Christmas table has a distinctive decor. Here, every detail - is a symbol. According to ancient custom table sprinkled with hay or straw in the memory of the manger of baby Jesus. At the edges at first put on zubochku garlic - to scare away evil spirits, and his then cover elegant tablecloth. In some houses a festive table put some iron object. All gathered around the table one by one to put on his legs to be healthy throughout the coming year, because the iron symbolizes strength and health.
According to the ancient Ukrainian tradition of preparing for the great feast in advance and responsibly.
Another tradition - Christmas carols. After a festive liturgy, sang Christmas carols everywhere. Arranged from a small drawer "den" - a cave in which Jesus was born. The Gospel story of the Magi who came to worship the baby and offered him gifts - gold, frankincense and myrrh - formed the basis of tradition to give a Christmas season for children and each other gifts.
The history of the holiday. Christmas holiday has come to Ruc along with Christianity and became one of the two major Christian holidays.
The Orthodox Church has established a tradition of celebration of the Vigil of Christmas is already in the IV century. In the V century patriarch of Constantinople, Anatoly, and then Anatoly and Sophrony Jerusalem, Mayumsky Cosmas and St. John of Damascus wrote for the celebration of Christmas sacred hymns, which to this day the Church celebrates this joyous occasion.
Celebrated holiday on December 25 (January 7, New Style). The date of Christ's birth to calculate the day on Dec. 25 for Catholics and Protestants and the Orthodox on Jan. 7.
Different numbers due to the fact that in 1582 Pope Gregory introduced a new calendar, called "Gregorian", instead of Julian. The difference between old and new style every hundred years, increasing by 1 day.
Christmas is celebrated annually in the same numbers. Like all religious holidays, it is accompanied by its specific traditions, ceremonies, including the culinary.
In the Orthodox Church of the Nativity is the second holiday after Easter. Days of Christmas in every nation have its own name. In Britain - Carol in Germany - the holy night, in Ukraine and Belarus - carols, in Russia - Yuletide.
Modern kutya. The main Christmas dish can be cooked in a modern city. Grain is sold in supermarkets, but if it did not help - you can buy a round figure.
Mack washed, zaparivaetsya hot water for 2-3 hours, then water is discharged. Separately, in a hand grinder (electric does not give the desired effect), the maximum is pounded to give milk a poppy, the mixture is added to honey or sugar. Everything is mixed and added to the porridge. As a last resort - walnut kernels, which can be pre-fry until crisp.
Kutyu need to eat first, ie start their own dinner, each of those present at the table to eat at least one spoonful kuti. According to legend, then that person will live in health and welfare of the entire coming year.
With the start of Christmas Christmas Eve - one big holiday, which lasts until the Epiphany Eve. On Christmas Eve in Russia for centuries was made to dress, arrange a funny game, going from house to house to wake the sleeping, I congratulate all colliding with the rotation of the sun in the summer, and later, after the adoption of Christianity, Christmas, joke, sing songs. Ended carols universal fun, riding with slides, a common feast.
Was taken and wonder. Yule divination are varied and plentiful. Had them girls, sometimes under the guidance of senior women. And they wondered, especially if they come out next year, get married or remain "on the shelf, whether rich or poor, in general, whether alive or dead. Therefore, many divination related to the search restriction.
Olga Koryagina, URA-Inform