Part of the developers under the prefix "eco" implies the existence of a pond or forest, and the other part believes that the attachment includes at least partial compliance with the standards of so-called green devepopment - building taking into account energy-saving technologies from environmentally friendly materials. So what does today mean the prefix "eco": this is a clever marketing ploy or a name really well organized and thought out green projects? Market participants disagree, but agree that there is ekoposelkov future.
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Gas polluted air, apartment houses, small yards and playgrounds ... It is clear that life in the city has both advantages and disadvantages. However, some people are not ready to take Cons of urban life. Their choice - villages outside the city, claiming to be environmentally friendly. Experts say that the choice of these men is correlated with their active lifestyle. "This choice makes city dwellers who, for whatever reason decided to give up city life and in favor of naturalness in all things, and decided to seriously address the protection of the environment, because the villagers themselves have to take care of their environment - for which no clearance forest or violation of the natural landscape is unacceptable, "- says the director of marketing for the group of companies" Conti "Yuri Sinyaev.
Meanwhile, some experts believe that the prefix "eco" - no more than a fad and often enterprising developers called eco towns, which are to the environment have a very indirect relationship. "The prefix" eco "- it's just a marketing move. It is not clear what the environmental friendliness of the village, because, for example, in the village of" greatness "houses were built of brick. In general, one can hardly accept the prefix" eco "in relation to settlement . can be eco-friendly products, water, but no settlement - because the air there is hardly anything different from the air in the surrounding communities, "- said with skepticism CEO Tweed Irina Mogilatova.
Market participants say that this eco-village - it is something more than a building outside Moscow. "Eco" may be a village in the Swiss Alps, where there is no next production, where all the houses are built of wood felled in the nearby forests. The prefix "eco" in the names of Russian settlements there in the moment when the developers decide that for their potential buyers would have been nice to see the name of the village this prefix, Irina Mogilatova continues.
"It all depends on the settlement, but in most cases it is still a good marketing ploy to attract a buyer - I agree with her, Yuri Sinyaev. - As a rule, in Russia, the developer calls his village ekoposelkom because it is located near a forest or lake, or the construction of houses were used only natural materials. ekoposelka However, the concept includes much more options and limitations. "
Of what, what does
Houses built out of three hundred years of larch, with residents who use solar panels and consume only what is brought up with his own hands, moreover, without chemical fertilizers - that image of an ideal eco-village. But these pictures certainly more reminiscent of the utopian imagery of the novels of the Futurists, rather than reality. As explained by experts, and ideally should be located ekoposelki at long distances from the capital - in the south-west, west, north-west suburbs - from 60-70 km from Moscow, where indeed cleaner and quieter. The project site prior to construction must pass a comprehensive environmental assessment. Moreover, the analysis should be subject to soil, air, water, and should assess the radiation, electromagnetic environment, and other parameters. "It should be settlements, based on the principle of minimum intervention in the environment with strict observance of hygiene standards. Ekoposelok in the classical sense - at home from natural materials (eg wood, straw, clay), whose residents consume foods that are grown on own site, and the land is used for processing only organic materials, etc. In such settlements should be applied electricity, produced from alternative energy sources ", - says Yuri Sinyaev.
However, the market dominated by suburbs rather consumerist approach to ecology. For many is quite sufficient, near the house clean pond, untouched nature and the lack of industrial and landfill sites.
"The fact that Russia has not yet been defined parameters and standards to be met ekoposelki, moreover, there is no legislative framework. In this regard, even the developers who are building settlements in the title of which there is the prefix" eco " very carefully refer to the positioning of its own facilities as ekoposelkov. Emphasis is placed on the desire to comply with environmental regulations as charged "- keeps Yuri Sinyaev.
Lack of legal framework leads to the fact that a number of villages, positioned as the environmental, is not in the most favorable locations. "Indeed, such facts are explained by the lack of adequate and appropriate legislative framework, as well as a number of developers uncleanliness. And yet, all residents of metropolitan clear that living in a big city and be in a favorable ecological environment - almost incompatible positions. It is rather a psychological concept. It however people still tend to buy houses in ecologically clean areas, so the market is offering buyers including ekoposelki at a distance from 0 to 10 km from Moscow, which in relation to Moscow, no doubt, are more environmentally friendly, "- he adds.
The very notion of "ekoposelok" came to us from the West. There have long appeared the notion of green development - construction in compliance with environmental standards and using innovative technologies. It is believed that the buildings constructed in accordance with the principles ekodevelopmenta, the most in demand and payback in terms of return on investment in the future, when in front of the owners and lessees of premises real question will arise about the economy - electricity, water and other resources.
In the U.S. and Europe first began to talk about ekodevelopmente in the late 1970s. The starting point for the development of this theme was the energy crisis in the U.S. that pushed the idea of engineering work on the topics of cooling due to solar radiation, solar energy as a power source, as well as energy-efficient appliances. In Europe in the late 1980s, the concept has become an alternative to traditional ekodevelopmenta design and construction. First she won Germany, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, and then came to the United States and Canada.
In ekodevelopmente even developed their own standards. The most common was created in 1990 by a British environmental assessment method BREEAM (Building Reseach Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and developed in the 1998 U.S. standard LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - leadership in energy-saving and environmentally friendly design). These standards were created by a team of architects, engineers, builders, as well as various public and governmental organizations. They are applied on a voluntary basis, but taking into account market realities. Based on the criteria of these systems Western experts estimate the environmental characteristics of the object and its impact on the environment. The assessment of a building certificate is assigned to one of five stages. Actually, no one requires building owners to obtain certificates. But it is the authoritative testimony to significantly enhance their value, because the Western consumer has become more and more to think about the environment of his home and office, and he is willing to pay for their environmental safety.
But until full compliance with the western suburbs of Moscow region ekostandartam far. What is environmental - the application of advanced technologies and clean of earth and air? Experts say that in Russian conditions most appropriate to talk about creating eco-zones. "The most basic of what forgotten in Russia - is that, having received the status of" eco ", you need to spend money and effort to maintain an appropriate level ekoposelka" - emphasizes Yuri Sinyaev. Importantly, the very definition of ecozones - it's the bare minimum to get the prefix "eco". It is closer to the situation, rather than to the material, so the main thing - it's the environment that is favorable environmental conditions, the availability of forests, water bodies, absence of industrial facilities near the area. It is also important to have a good air, there is no emission in the nearby environment, which may undermine environmental ecozone, he adds.
Of course, the developer ekoposelki more expensive, since their construction should be used more expensive materials and technologies that will increase in future life, will minimize the need for repairs, but also will save on operating costs because they are energy efficient. "Also, this concept entails a large construction time and therefore decrease the turnover of capital and increase the credit load. In general, the cost of clean construction materials increase the overall budget settlement by 10-15%. All this makes these towns and more for consumers, on average, 15-20% compared to conventional settlements comparable class "- explains Yuri Sinyaev.
Creating eco-zones involves the use of innovative technologies: the solar panels and bio-products, and architectural solutions to harness the energy of water, wind, solar and "green" roof and a variety of energy saving technologies.
In the West, for example, the use of innovative technologies is a major factor in obtaining the status of eco-village. Moreover, it is also profitable: energy-efficient technologies reduce the cost of the facility by approximately 20-25%. And the use of advanced materials increases the lifetime of the object, reducing the need for repairs and reconstruction.
The issue of conservation and energy savings seem to care about most western engineers. In their view, eco-friendly homes should be energy efficient in the first place, which helps to minimize harmful emissions and reduces water consumption. They are looking for a variety of ways to achieve their goals. For example, not so long ago, the concept of the facade Schuco E2, which were combined solutions for the modern shell of buildings, including "smart" control systems, as well as saving and energy production. Western experts believe that the future of the building, which stores more energy than it consumes, including, as it most of the surface. Energy conversion system of sunlight is also a means of aesthetic expression and attractive elements of architectural design.
One of the most advanced ideas of "intelligent" faÇade, which is used in the construction of "green" homes - the use of solar energy for cooling buildings. This, for example, is achieved through integration into the faÇade termokollektorov. In a nutshell, the algorithm works as follows: heat accumulated in the reservoirs of energy into a refrigeration unit in cold water and used directly for air conditioning. "Solar cooling" allows you to directly use the sun's energy to cool buildings, and it significantly reduces primary energy use for air conditioning the building. Yet Western engineering thought fit the high prices of electricity, but we still considered that the energy is relatively cheap, and saving to invest in "smart" technology - is like throwing a lot of money wasted. But in reality, it is certainly not the case. Each year, electricity prices rise. As soon as we get closer to two-thirds of the price level for electricity, for example, in Germany, energy-efficient technologies will become immediately relevant.
If we take as a basis for a European or an American approach to the understanding of "green real estate", the developers have to adhere to a number of important requirements. First, the area for development should be subjected to a comprehensive environmental assessment. It is necessary to study the soil, air, radiation, acoustic, electromagnetic environment, and other parameters. Secondly, to meet all safety standards for construction of houses, it is necessary to use only natural decoration and building materials. Thirdly, the houses and infrastructure should not harm the natural environment either during construction or during operation. And finally, fourthly, the architecture of the village should be used eco-design, that is, elements that emphasize its eco-friendliness.