The national project "Affordable housing" was launched in 2005, but affordable housing in Russia did not become: a record 63.76 million square meters. m, introduced in 2008, followed by the same record growth in prices.
Although the crisis has stopped the rise in prices, real estate market continues fever: money from the builders do not, construct new housing is small, but the state has already begun to pump up the market for mortgage money. A little more - and can repeat the pre-crisis scenario. Officials say that trying to create mechanisms that would increase the volume of construction and reduce the cost of the finished housing.
By 2016, to reach 100 million square meters. meters of housing by 2020 - a 142 million square feet. m per year, the task set by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin at a meeting on housing development in Podolsk. These "predicted" real estate market distrust. In 2009, were put into operation 59.8 million square meters. meters of housing (Rosstat). And this may be the failure to 20-25% relative to last year, the president of Builders Association of Russia Nikolai Koshman.
However, Deputy Minister of Regional Development of Constantine Royal confident that the figures are real - for this Regional Development jointly with the Housing Development Fund (RZHS) and "United Russia" developed the concept of reducing the market value of housing.
The concept states that the existing procedures of land allocation for construction are not focused on reducing the ultimate cost of housing. Auctions are organized in such a way that defeats the one who gives a heavy price for the site. Municipalities shift all the costs of urban development and land management documents for developers. In addition, developers have at their own expense join the network, and in some cases build them.
How to coordinate all
According to Royal, coordinated support for housing construction from the federal ministries and departments, implementing housing programs, regions and development institutions. Now investment not linked, officials say: Local monopolists implement their programs in isolation from the housing, municipalities forced developers to build social facilities, etc. In July, created the advisory council, which will coordinate all this work.
"I'll show by example that we are investing in the concept of coordination" - says Royal. If the region is set Target to introduce in 2014, one million square meters. meters of housing, then in 2013, construction has to be deployed. To this end, in 2012, should be a contest for selection of developers on the prepared plots. Realizing that 1 hectare is under construction not more than 10 000 square meters. meters of housing, land area should be at least 100 hectares. By 2011, these territories should be prepared by planning documentation. HMLA and banks need to plan for 2013 the necessary volume of loans for the builder, and in 2014 - for buyers of apartments.
In addition, the complex, a mechanism that allows to distinguish the provision of engineering infrastructure sites in a separate business and thus remove it from the construction costs. These costs will be included in the tariff for consumers. In other words, the monopolists will have its investment plan in such a way as to ensure future construction projects with the necessary resources.
"Only such an approach would allow the developer to get fully prepared site turnkey resursosnabzhayuschim organizations - consumers in an understandable amount in clear terms and in an understandable place, and citizens - housing at affordable prices", - says Royal.
The increase in housing construction will require large investments of municipalities to ensure that new housing sites of social and road infrastructure. According to the calculations of Regional Development, is a minimum of 10,000 square meters. m per 1 sq. m constructed housing. Such funds, most municipalities do not, therefore, Ministry of Regional Development considers it necessary to allocate part of the Housing Program of 30-40 billion rubles. for five years.
Auction for a fall
Also, the authors propose a new concept of a so-called Dutch (in fall) auctions and to bid put the final cost per square meter. Initial price of the auction will be the average market price of housing, some Ministry of Regional Development, said Royal. According to the director general of the Foundation RZHS Alexander Braverman, the idea belongs to the government commission - and, in particular its Chairman, First Deputy Prime Minister Igor Shuvalov. Regulations on the auction is still under development.
Local officials will have to submit to the auction fully prepared for construction sites: goskadastre register them, get permission to use and so on. Estimated MP, after introducing the new system is expected to reduce the price of high-rise housing economy class for at least 20-25%.
Developers are afraid only of speculative transactions with the low-cost housing. According to King, that the conditions of the auction complied with, will be taken right to restrictions on resale. The concept involves the selection of home buyers: only sell to Russians, was registered as needing housing or those entitled to housing subsidies, as well as those whom the state must provide an apartment. It is proposed to introduce tax increase (10-20% of value) on the resale of such housing within five years. Amendments to the Town Planning, Land, Housing and Tax Codes, as well as to the law on state registration of rights to immovable property being developed jointly with the Ministry of Regional Development experts and committees of the Duma, and may be made as early as the autumn session.
Now the state gives the military and young families certificates and it just stimulates the growth of prices, complains one of the developers of the concept - deputy chairman of the committee on budget and taxes, the State Duma, Alexander Kogan, and under the new system, all these people will go to economy-housing developers, forcing competitors to seek ways to reduce construction costs.
The idea of a Dutch auction is good, it could lead to cheaper housing, but provided all initial permits, says CEO Concern Krost Alexei Dobashin.
"The key problem is to administer and monitor compliance with the approved sales price in the future. I was not clear how and by what means will be organized such work and what costs will be incurred in its performance ", - says Mikhail Urinson, managing director," Alur ". He did not share the optimism about a significant reduction in the cost of housing due to finite measures proposed: "The crisis has already reduced the cost of land and property developers have significant land banks. The maximum effect on reducing the cost of the final product would have lower taxes on land rents, but most importantly - providing areas of urban planning and design documentation, networks, roads, social infrastructure, etc "