Former Mayor of Moscow went down in history for its construction projects and international scandals at the CIS level.
Most ambitious to date, city holiday - Day of the City of Moscow - has become an annual initiative by Yuri Luzhkov. The tradition was born in 1997, when the mayor, the idea is widely noted the 850 th birthday of the capital.
The holiday was a success, and since then every first weekend of autumn Moscow says the next birthday. The celebrations are usually held with great pomp and cost city budget is not cheap.
Lord of the Rings
At the Moscow ring road (Ring Road) in the early 90`s has developed a bad reputation: it is often an accident occurs annually kills more than 200 people. Its reconstruction took place in two stages.
During the first year 1995 was held lighting, and made a barrier that separates the direction of motion. At the second road width was increased to 50 meters. Reconstruction of the Ring Road was the first significant transport project of the Moscow government.
However, motorists are not liking the Ring Road: there are often many kilometers there are unexpected congestion. The second ring Luzhkov - Third Transport - also did not save the capital from the congestion.
Samovar All Russia
The most significant project was the reconstruction of Luzhkov`s Christ the Savior Cathedral, which the contemporaries of the original version was called a samovar. On-site pool "Moscow" began in 1994 and culminated in a record quickly - within five years.
During the completion of construction was suspended initial project architect Alexei Denisov, and complete construction of the temple instructed Zurab Tsereteli, which caused many complaints among specialists. For example, on the walls of the famous temple there are not marble, and bronze high relief, despite the fact that the originals were stored in the Donskoy Monastery.
Russia made a single
The United Russia party, which in 2008 was headed by Vladimir Putin, who owes its emergence largely Luzhkov. In 1998 he founded the movement "Fatherland", whose goal was participation in the Duma and presidential elections. By the "Fatherland" began to join as an individual policy, or an entire movement.
In 1999 the movement joined former Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov. However, the party "Fatherland - All Russia" could not win the Duma elections. Then won set up in haste by the authorities Party "Unity", which in 2001 under the name "United Russia" joined WRA. And he Luzhkov joined the leadership of the newly formed party.
Telekiller against the cap
During the election campaign of 1999 the most consistent critic of Luzhkov became a journalist Sergei Dorenko. Tactics of the information war in textbooks on PR and journalism. Telekiller accused the mayor and involvement in the contract killing co-owner of the Radisson Slavyanskaya Paul Tatum, and a betrayal of President Boris Yeltsin, and in grand corruption in the capital.
Sometimes the program Dorenko sounded frankly absurd statements. For example, the message that Moscow`s mayor works with the head of the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo, which is arranged Zarinov attack in the Tokyo subway. Channels controlled by the mayor, tried to counter these attacks.
Architecture in "Luzhkov`s" style
With former mayor of Muscovites clearly associated a specific architectural style. "Luzhkov`s" architecture is hardly a classic - but rather as a cross between post-modernism and eclecticism.
Also to the architecture of this type include borrowing from other styles, embellishment different towers and onion-domed, the use of materials "for real". Classical examples of "Luzhkov`s" style shopping center are the "Nautilus" on Lubyanka Square, a fountain, "Pushkin and Natalie" Square Nikitsky Gate House, "the Patriarch" by the Patriarch`s Ponds.
Five storied saga
Major construction project of Nikita Khrushchev ended with the arrival of Yuri Mikhailovich. In 2003, the residential area of five-story building was 36 million square meters. Of these, by the year 2010 should have been torn down about 6 million, and the rest - was reconstructed.
Because of the crisis program deadlines repeatedly postponed. This summer it became known that the elimination of "demolished the series` five-story building will last until 2014. Currently, the planned 1.722 million homes demolished about 75%.
Built during the reign of former mayor criticized for being ill-conceived and inconsistent construction. Thus, the dissatisfaction of many citizens turned out program uplotnilovki. Spot construction began in 2002. On-site parks and gardens grew new home that has worsened the living conditions of those whose houses were near the construction site.
Muscovites do not like that in front of their windows began to grow new homes. In 2008, city authorities decided to abandon the seal program, but in reality nothing has changed: as compacted and compacted.
Outdo New York
One of the most ambitious and progressive project, "Luzhkov`s" architecture has become the business district of the Moscow-City "on Presnensky waterfront.
Apparently, the glory of New York with its skyscrapers haunted metropolitan superiors. Therefore, the complex was designed to outdo the other capitals - the territory of 100 hectares is actively built up a business center, apartments and accommodation buildings designated for recreational purposes.
The project is postponed from 2010 to 2015.
The main Georgian sculptor
Among the cultural feats of former mayor, of course, applies to his aid the rise of the sculptor Zurab Tsereteli. His first high-profile projects in the capital, became involved in the construction of the complex at Poklonnaya Hill in 1995.
Following this, the sculptor put his hand to rebuild the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, and to design the complex at the Manege Square. The most notorious and questionable from an artistic point of view has become a monument to Peter I on the Moscow River, was built by order of the Government of Moscow.
The monument is a recycled and modified the statue of Christopher Columbus, which Tsereteli unsuccessfully tried to sell Latin American countries, the United States and Spain on the eve of the 500 anniversary of the discovery of the Americas.
Without "Voentorg and warm series
Large-scale reconstruction project Tsaritsyno began in 2005. Recreating the complex happened to the scandals. Many architects say that this will lead to a distortion of historical appearance Tsarina, environmentalists said on the environmental catastrophe due to the massive felling of trees in the park.
Nevertheless, in 2007 the work was completed. Tsaritsyno has become a popular holiday destination for Muscovites, but a historical monument, it has to do with it.
According to estimates architects over the years Luzhkov has been demolished or rebuilt more than 700 historic buildings, including the building of the famous "Voentorg in 2003 and most of the heat series in 2008, the site had planned to build a hotel company Inteko.
Construction mania for giants
The emergence of large construction companies - is also one of the signs of the Board Luzhkov. The most powerful of these is Inteko, led by the mayor`s wife Yelena Baturina. Many tend to believe that it is administrative support for her husband helped create Baturina from the company to produce plastic basins and cups largest construction companies in Russia. Revenue Inteko in 2009 amounted to about 54 billion rubles. Physical activities of the construction market started almost simultaneously with the entry of Yuri Luzhkov for the post of mayor.
Themis on a short leash
Luzhkov has introduced the so-called mayoral allowance to the salaries of some categories of specialists working in Moscow. Additional payments from the municipal budget prepared metropolitan teachers, doctors, police officers and judges. The level of financial support for each category of its own.
Thus, the average teacher salary in Moscow 26 000 rubles surcharge the mayor of approximately 11,000. But the salary metropolitan police officer without Luzhkov allowances would be about 60% less, told Trud "a source in Moscow police.
Undocumented immigrants to register in the capital
A person of average resident of the capital no longer Slav, but rather the Central Asian. The problem of migrant workers is particularly acute stood in Moscow in recent years largely because of the ill-conceived policies of city authorities, who actually opened the city for illegals. The massive influx began in 2000-2001.
In words, Luzhkov has repeatedly stated the need to give jobs to Muscovites and Russians: there were attempts to reduce the number of janitors, aliens, ban visitors working drivers and minibuses to trade on the markets. However, migrant workers in the capital did not become smaller, and they all turned out here legally.
Politician international scale
Participation in the destiny of Sevastopol and the Black Sea Fleet Luzhkov, no doubt, went far beyond the duties of the mayor of the capital. He always personally been to the city, initiated the construction of homes in Sebastopol and kindergartens in Moscow money.
But in May 2008, the sponsorship project moved into the category of policy. Luzhkov, speaking at a concert to mark the 225 th anniversary of the Russian Black Sea Fleet, said that Sevastopol was not included in the territories that Khrushchev gave the Ukrainian SSR, so the question of ownership of the city remains open. Ukrainian authorities in response to the mayor banned from entering the country. An example of our Ukrainian colleagues have used, and Georgian officials, Luzhkov was also barred from showing in the country because of the positive feedback on the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The conflict was over the victory in the elections of Viktor Yanukovych, who has allowed Luzhkov entry.
Thanks to the mayor for a dignified old age
Even those seniors who do not like Luzhkov, infinitely grateful to him for Moscow`s pension supplement. In addition to free travel, which pensioners are understandably eager, Luzhkov is one of the first leaders of subjects of Russia has introduced a regional supplement to retirement.
They introduced the so-called social standard in the amount of 10,275 rubles. The difference between the social standards and the size of pensions paid by the authorities of the Moscow city budget.
Muscovite be difficult
"Come in large numbers in nerezinovuyu" easily, but now live in it legally became difficult. When Luzhkov in 2006 in Moscow, was installed new, more rigid order of temporary registration and registration. He greatly expanded the list of grounds for possible refusal. If before the owners and tenants prescribed, subscribed and registered almost anyone - as relatives and friends, acquaintances and even strangers - then the new order of the tenants of municipal meters were deprived of this privilege. Maximum period of provisional registration is limited to five years.
Scandalous Master Plan
At the end of May this year, Yuri Luzhkov signed a decree approving the development of Moscow`s new General Plan. According to him, by 2025 the capital must be transformed as follows: demolition subjected not only to five-story, but the panel and block and nine-dvenadtsatietazhki, the tendency will be the construction of skyscrapers.
Particular attention is paid to the problem of traffic jams. To solve this problem in the General Plan incorporated the construction of two Rokada - diagonal lines, running parallel to the Moscow River Reserves Varshavka, Dmitrovka Leningradki and Kutuzov Avenue. Known public figures and ordinary Muscovites have criticized the document. Their main argument was that the center of the city would lose the historic appearance, and traffic jams will kilometer.
/ / Labor